Black Snake
Black Snake
Daffodils
Daffodils
Ember Days
Ember Days
The Isolation of the Body
The Isolation of the Body
Porter Mann Dairy Concern
Porter Mann Dairy Concern
Soil
Soil
Sugar Tree
Sugar Tree
To Scatter Seed
To Scatter Seed
Alligator
Alligator
Butterfly
Butterfly
Crustacea
Crustacea
Fish
Fish
Frog
Frog
Horse
Horse
Lizard
Lizard
Protozoa & Zoophytes
Protozoa & Zoophytes
Snake
Snake
Turtle
Turtle
Actinoida, Calamary, Coral, Hammer-Head Shark, Hermit Crab, Iguana, Mammals, Porifera, Praying Mantis, Rhinophryne, Sheep and Tennessee Walker
Actinoida, Calamary, Coral, Hammer-Head Shark, Hermit Crab, Iguana, Mammals, Porifera, Praying Mantis, Rhinophryne, Sheep and Tennessee Walker
All These Days
All These Days
Galveston
Galveston
The Year of the Catalpa Worms
The Year of the Catalpa Worms
The Post-War World
The Post-War World
Sixteen Squares
Sixteen Squares
Afterlife
Afterlife
El Camino Del Diablo
El Camino Del Diablo
In the Hours of Folding Flowers
In the Hours of Folding Flowers
Invisible Like Music
Invisible Like Music
Tend Your Garden (The Seed)
Tend Your Garden (The Seed)
Nowhere
Nowhere
The Darkness of Winter Wondering
The Darkness of Winter Wondering
Used to Be
Used to Be
The Rings May 11, 1974
The Rings May 11, 1974
The Man in the Moon
The Man in the Moon
The Old Home
The Old Home
Waiting Like Winter in Ohio
Waiting Like Winter in Ohio
Yellow Flowers
Yellow Flowers
The Black Painting
The Black Painting
Angel For John
Angel For John
Hunting Someone Else’s Treasure
Hunting Someone Else’s Treasure
I am the River Now
I am the River Now
My Old Man
My Old Man
Rising as the Sun
Rising as the Sun
The House
The House
Three Years, Three Months and Three Days
Three Years, Three Months and Three Days
The Oceans of Concrete
The Oceans of Concrete
The Thaw
The Thaw
The Three Elements (Sky, Dirt & Glacier)
The Three Elements (Sky, Dirt & Glacier)
Tobacco Trail
Tobacco Trail
Tornado and the Hurricane
Tornado and the Hurricane
What Was the Dream
What Was the Dream
When One of Us is Gone
When One of Us is Gone
The Fools Journey
The Fools Journey
The Pictures Tell the Story
The Pictures Tell the Story
The Duality of Blue and Brown
The Duality of Blue and Brown
RR 3 Falmouth KY
RR 3 Falmouth KY
Oregon
Oregon
Eldorado
Eldorado
Aunt Nannys Table
Aunt Nannys Table
Hog Door
Hog Door
Virgil Mann's Mailbox
Virgil Mann's Mailbox
Barn Window
Barn Window
Black Boxes
Black Boxes
Rosemond & Virgil Mann
Rosemond & Virgil Mann
The Footprint
The Footprint
Medicine Chest
Medicine Chest
Franks Farm Machinery Book
Franks Farm Machinery Book
Farm Machinery
Farm Machinery
Frank Race's Lead Cube
Frank Race's Lead Cube
Garage Window
Garage Window
John W. Mann
John W. Mann
Mark's Symbol
Mark's Symbol
Midnight Landscape
Midnight Landscape
Tobacco Patch
Tobacco Patch
Salt Box
Salt Box
Shed Door Mechanics
Shed Door Mechanics
The Church of Darkness & Light
The Church of Darkness & Light
The Dust Bowl
The Dust Bowl
The Falmouth Flood Disaster
The Falmouth Flood Disaster
Black Snake
Black Snake     Normal   0           false   false   false     EN-US   JA   X-NONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria",serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The black snake seemed to follow us at the house crawling through the floors and chimney, waiting in the air, the story always came back; recounted, reenacted and verified numerous times by various relatives. “I always hated snakes.”"Because you have done this, Cursed are you more than all cattle, And more than every beast of the field; On your belly you will go, And dust you will eat All the days of your life;”Genisis 3:14Since living in the old house two black snakes found their way into the living room, Grover’s room. “They always come in pairs.”
Daffodils
Daffodils     Normal   0           false   false   false     EN-US   JA   X-NONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria",serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Down the old road, back the ridge, past the sugar tree under the ancient oak that marks the western property line lies the remains of a house and well, surrounding them in all directions are thousands of daffodils. Planted over a century ago by now extinct hands vanishing in what remains, and spreading every spring further down the holler.The house was tore down in the early 1900’s for use as an addition to the manor house, energy changing forms.
Ember Days
Ember Days     Normal   0           false   false   false     EN-US   JA   X-NONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria",serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The Blind PreacherIt was one Sunday, as I was traveling through the county of Orange, that my eye was caught by a cluster of horses tied near a ruinous, old, wooden house, in the forest, not far from the roadside. Having frequently seen such objects before, in traveling through these States, I had no difficulty in understanding that this was a place of religious worship. Devotion alone should have stopped me, to join in the duties of the congregation; but I must confess that curiosity to hear the preacher of such a wilderness was not the least of my motives.On entering, I was struck with his preternatural appearance. He was a tall and very spare old man; his head, which was covered with a white linen cap, his shriveled hands, and his voice, were all shaking under the influence of palsy; and a few moments ascertained to me that he was perfectly blind.The first emotions which touched my breast were those of mingled pity and veneration; but, ah! how soon were all my feelings changed! It was a day of the administration of the sacrament; and his subject, of course, was the passion of our Saviour.I had heard the subject handled a thousand times; I had thought it exhausted long ago. Little did I suppose that, in the wild woods of America, I was to meet with a man whose eloquence would give to this topic a new and more sublime pathos than I had ever before witnessed.As he descended from the pulpit, to distribute the mystic symbols, there was a peculiar, a more than human solemnity in his air and manner, which made my blood run cold and my whole frame shiver. He then drew a picture of the sufferings of our Saviour—his trial before Pilate—his ascent up Calvary—his crucifixion—and his death.I knew the whole history, but never, until then, had I heard the circumstances so selected, so arranged, so colored! It was all new, and I seemed to have heard it for the first time in my life. His enunciation was so deliberate, that his voice trembled on every syllable, and every heart in the assembly trembled in unison.His peculiar phrases had such force of description, that the original scene appeared to be at that moment acting before our eyes. We saw the very faces of the Jews—the staring, frightful distortions of malice and rage. We saw the buffet—my soul kindled with a flame of indignation, and my hands were involuntarily and convulsively clinched.But when he came to touch on the patience, the forgiving meekness, of our Saviour—when he drew, to the life, his blessed eyes streaming in tears to heaven—his voice breathing to God a soft and gentle prayer of pardon for his enemies, “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do!”—the voice of the preacher, which all along faltered, grew fainter and fainter, until, his utterance being entirely obstructed by the force of his feelings, he raised his handkerchief to his eyes, and burst into a loud and irrepressible flow of grief.The effect was inconceivable. The whole house resounded with the mingled groans and sobs and shrieks of the congregation. It was some time before the tumult had subsided so far as to permit him to proceed.Indeed, judging by the usual but fallacious standard of my own weakness, I began to be very uneasy for the situation of the preacher. For I could not conceive how he would be able to let his audience down from the height to which he had wound them, without impairing the solemnity and dignity of his subject, or perhaps shocking them by the abruptness of the fall. But—no; the descent was as beautiful and sublime as the elevation had been rapid and enthusiastic.The first sentence with which he broke the awful silence was a quotation from Rousseau: “Socrates died like a philosopher; but Jesus Christ like a God!!!”I despair of giving you any idea of the effect produced by this short sentence, unless you could perfectly conceive the whole manner of the man, as well as the peculiar crisis in the discourse. Never before did I completely understand what Demosthenes meant by laying such stress on delivery.-       William WirtEmber Days are four sets of three days Wednesday, Friday and Saturday observed after December 13 S. Lucia, Ash Wednesday, Whitsunday and September 14 Exaltation of the Cross. These are days of fasting and contemplation to ask thanks for the gifts of nature, to teach man to make use of it in moderation and to assist the needy. On Ember Friday March 2 2012 tornadoes roared across Kentucky.As users we preserve energy in cycles of use, energy is superhuman in that humans cannot create it, we can only refine and convert energy and are bound by the paradox: we cannot have it except by losing it: we cannot use it except by destroying it. Birth, Growth, Maturity, Death, Decay… the Wheel of Life.
The Isolation of the Body
The Isolation of the Body     Normal   0           false   false   false     EN-US   JA   X-NONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria",serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} he damage from which all damage issue-At some point we began to assume the life of the body would be the business of grocers and doctors, who take no interest in the spirit and the life of the spirit would be the business of the churches who have only a negative interest in the body.We see nothing wrong with putting the body to a task that insults the mind and demeans the spirit.This made it easier to prefer our own bodies to the bodies of other creatures and to abuse and exploit, hold in contempt them for the greater good or comfort of our own. Contempt for the body is invariably manifested in contempt for other bodies, the earth itself, all relationships become competitive and exploitive.This isolation of the body sets it into direct conflict with everything else in creation.Shakespeare’s Sonnet 146Poor soul, the center of my sinful earth,These rebel powers that thee array;Why dost thou pine within and suffer death,Painting thy outward walls so costly gay?Why so large cost, having so short a lease,Dost thou upon thy fading mansion spend?Shall worms, inheritors of this excess,Eat up thy charge? Is this thy body's end?Then soul, live thou upon thy servant's loss,And let that pine to aggravate thy store;Buy terms divine in selling hours of dross;Within be fed, without be rich no more:So shalt thou feed on Death, that feeds on men,And Death once dead, there's no more dying then.
Porter Mann Dairy Concern
Porter Mann Dairy Concern     Normal   0           false   false   false     EN-US   JA   X-NONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria",serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} In the fencerow down the holler from the old road underneath the sugar tree is a junk pile, in that pile was buried a rusty cream can issued by the Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railroad Company to Porter Mann. William Porter Mann was born June 19th 1915 the middle of the three boys of Grover Cleveland and Mary Ruth Porter Mann.On January 2 2012 the farm’s dairy concern was reestablished with the purchase of a brown Swiss cow Marcella.
Soil
Soil     Normal   0           false   false   false     EN-US   JA   X-NONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria",serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Dream not of other worlds…Paradise Lost VIIIThe LORD God formed a man from the dust of the ground… Soil, the earth, the source and destination of all, it is life and death, the grave. The only way into the soil is through the body, the passage of energy through changing forms, for everything except man who seals himself in coffins and vaults, monuments to his pathological fear of the earth. The soil and its tending is a practical art, a practical religion… a practice of religion, a rite. …Until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return.
Sugar Tree
Sugar Tree     Normal   0           false   false   false     EN-US   JA   X-NONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria",serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Emmitt Lee, the youngest of the three boys of Grover Cleveland and Mary Ruth Porter Mann was born December 9th 1922 and lived to the age of 81, his brothers were William Porter  and Virgil Cleveland, he took up with a beautiful young girl named Agnes, they were married and had three lovely daughters.Till this day the girls recall, “Daddy always wanted to be buried under the old sugar tree.”
To Scatter Seed
To Scatter Seed     Normal   0           false   false   false     EN-US   JA   X-NONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria",serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} THE FARMER, SPEAKING OF MONUMENTSAlways, on their generation’s breaking wave,men think to be immortal in the world,as though to leap from water and standin air were simple for a man. But the farmerknows no work or act of his can keep himhere. He remains in what he servesby vanishing in it, becoming what he never was.He will not be immortal in words.All his sentences serve an art of the commonplace,to open the body of a woman or a fieldto take him in. His words all turnto leaves, answering the sun with mutequick reflections. Leaving their seed, his handshave had a million graves, from which wondersrose, bearing him no likeness. At summerʼsheight he is surrounded by green, hisdoing, standing for him, awake and orderly.In autumn, all his monuments fall.- Wendell Berry“Thy own Name’s Sake! O Thou, who diedst to save sinners, have mercy upon me!”The only way to be truly immortal is to vanish into everything, to become indistinguishable from eternity.
Alligator
AlligatorAn alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae. The two living species are the American alligator and the Chinese alligator. In addition, several extinct species of alligator are known from fossil remains. Alligators first appeared during the Paleocene epoch about 66 million years ago.
Butterfly
ButterflyButterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers and the most recent analyses suggest it also contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago.
Crustacea
Crustacea[krəˈstāSHə] DEFINITIONa large group of mainly aquatic arthropods that include crabs, lobsters, shrimps, wood lice, barnacles, and many minute forms. They are very diverse, but most have four or more pairs of limbs and several other appendages. (crustacea) arthropods of the group Crustacea.
Fish
FishFish are the gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods. Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification.
Frog
FrogA frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura. The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are widely distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforests. There are approximately 4,800 recorded species, accounting for over 85% of extant amphibian species. They are also one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders.
Horse
HorseThe horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Eohippus, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, and the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors, markings, breeds, locomotion, and behavior.
Lizard
LizardLizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia which are also squamates. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 meter long Komodo dragon.
Protozoa & Zoophytes
Protozoa & ZoophytesProtozoaIn some systems of biological classification, the Protozoa are defined as a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Historically, protozoa were defined as single-celled animals or organisms with animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation. The group was regarded as the zoological counterpart to the "protophyta", which were considered to be plant-like, as they are capable of photosynthesis.A zoophyte is an animal that visually resembles a plant. An example is a sea anemone. The name is obsolete in modern science.Zoophytes are common in medieval and renaissance era herbals, notable examples including the Tartar Lamb, a plant which grew sheep as fruit. Zoophytes appeared in many influential early medical texts, such as Dioscorides's De Materia Medica and subsequent adaptations and commentaries on that work, notably Mattioli's Discorsi. Zoophytes are frequently seen as medieval attempts to explain the origins of exotic, unknown plants with strange properties (such as cotton, in the case of the Tartar Lamb).Reports of zoophytes continued into the seventeenth century and were commented on by many influential thinkers of the time period, including Francis Bacon. It was not until 1646 that claims of zoophytes began to be concretely refuted, and skepticism towards claims of zoophytes mounted throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. However, the term was still used by Georges Cuvier in his Le Règne Animal in 1817, as the title of one of his four divisions of the animal kingdom. And by Charles Darwin in Voyage of the Beagle in 1845. In the Eastern cultures such as Ancient China fungi were classified as plants in the Traditional Chinese Medicine texts, and cordyceps, and in particular Ophiocordyceps sinensis were considered zoophytes.
Snake
SnakeSnakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes. Like all squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales. Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their highly mobile jaws. To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung. Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca. Lizards have evolved elongate bodies without limbs or with greatly reduced limbs about twenty five times indepenently via convergent evolution, leading to many lineages of legless lizards. Legless lizards resemble snakes, but several common groups of legless lizards have eyelids and external ears, which snakes lack, although this rule is not universal.
Turtle
TurtleTurtles are reptiles of the order Testudines characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield. "Turtle" may refer to the order as a whole or to fresh-water and sea-dwelling testudines.
Actinoida, Calamary, Coral, Hammer-Head Shark, Hermit Crab, Iguana, Mammals, Porifera, Praying Mantis, Rhinophryne, Sheep and Tennessee Walker
Actinoida, Calamary, Coral, Hammer-Head Shark, Hermit Crab, Iguana, Mammals, Porifera, Praying Mantis, Rhinophryne, Sheep and Tennessee Walker
All These Days
All These DaysAll these days that stack in chains,On the scales measured weighed,Separate fiction fact this and that where I'm at.All I know is I will, I will
Galveston
GalvestonWalking out on the beach collecting shells,The wind is rough like the sea,White and crashing,You throw a shell back,You look at me lostWind whipping.
The Year of the Catalpa Worms
The Year of the Catalpa WormsWe were married in the year of the catalpa worms,The lights winked in the soft rainA blessing at the end of summer’s storm.My love is mine and I am hisOur song is our life and our love is our workThere is no facade for love and strengthOnly steadfast stick-to-it-ness
The Post-War World
The Post-War WorldEveryone’s worried about the PresidentThe governmentThe money spentThey wonder how bad it will getIf they can afford to liveTo pay the billsThe American empire on its last legLet them eat cake, steak, potato chips and sodaLet them live large wanting, workingTo liveTo payThe mortgageInsuranceCredit card debtBills, bills, billsFoodShelterElectricityHeatGasolineEntertainmentTVTV
Sixteen Squares
Sixteen SquaresHow many squares actually ARE in this picture? Is this a trick question with no right answer?up vote30down votefavorite12This is one of those popular pictures on sites like Facebook. I always see a huge variation of answers such as 8,9,16,17,24,28,30,40,41,52,8,9,16,17,24,28,30,40,41,52, etc., yet I've never seen a definitive answer on any website. I counted 1616 whole squares (44 going down on left side, 44 going down on right side, 88 small squares in the centre). With this method the answer could also be 1717 if you want to count the entire shape as one big square.I can also see the answer being 2424 if you count the smaller squares separately, as if they were floating above the main grid instead of intersecting with it.Is there a right answer, or is it possible that there is no 'right' answer and it just depends on your counting method?puzzleshareciteimprove this questionedited Feb 7 '16 at 0:22 daOnlyBG2,27071634asked Mar 1 '14 at 23:24 user109271918012521 For this to be a well-posed mathematical question you need to define precisely what you mean by the term "a square in the picture". Otherwise it is not mathematics. – Number Mar 1 '14 at 23:28 23 Not to take anything away from this puzzle; but 9292 sounds made up, it doesn't help that it says "UR" instead of "Your" either. – Asaf Karagila Mar 1 '14 at 23:296 @user1092719 You need to say precisely what it means for a square to be in the picture. – Number Mar 1 '14 at 23:4221 This is a classic case of "infectious meme pretending to be a puzzle." The 92% figure IS made up to try to make folks feel motivated to (a) play with it and (b) inflict it on others. As such, you can think of it as a wetware-mediated network worm. ANYTHING THAT EXPLICITLY SAYS "SHARE ME" SHOULD NOT BE SHARED. PERIOD. – keshlam Mar 2 '14 at 4:05 5 I find it amusing that the OP, who obviously studied the puzzle in some depth, did fail the simple test. – Mr Lister Mar 3 '14 at 7:38show 10 more comments 5 Answersactiveoldestvotes up vote124down voteacceptedThanks to Ross Millikan for helping me to find the last squares. Here is an GIF animation (344 kb) showing 40 squares from biggest to smallest: shareciteimprove this answeredited Mar 2 '14 at 4:57answered Mar 2 '14 at 2:47 A.L923161720 +1 for helpful visuals – qwr Mar 2 '14 at 2:492 How did you make this gif? (unrelated to math I know but...) I've been always curious to learn how to make gifs! – frogeyedpeas Mar 2 '14 at 4:4613 @frogeyedpeas: I used the GIMP software, there is one layer for each red square(s), displayed every second. This is a good tool but the interface is ... weird. – A.L Mar 2 '14 at 5:015 But the numeral 1 is also a square, making 41. :D – Jonathan Van Matre Mar 3 '14 at 5:504 @JonathanVanMatre: What about the numeral 9, and the word "square"? – ShreevatsaR Mar 3 '14 at 8:54show 1 more comment up vote59down voteIgnoring the two strange squares in the middle, there are 16 1×116 1×1 squares, 9 2×2, 4 3×3,9 2×2, 4 3×3, and 1 4×41 4×4 for a total of 3030 Each of the two strange squares has four small and one large square, five each, ten total.The grand total is then 4040 squares.shareciteimprove this answeranswered Mar 1 '14 at 23:50 Ross Millikan254k211753202 Of course, what else. I wonder how this couldn't be a definite answer, a square is a square. – Christian RauMar 2 '14 at 2:20   What about the 5‾√×5‾√5×5 square created by the points (1,0),(0,2),(2,3),(3,1)(1,0),(0,2),(2,3),(3,1)? (I'm looking at the larger squares only and considering the intersections as lattice points.) Am I missing something? – George V. Williams Mar 2 '14 at 2:58 3 there are no lines formed there so those i don't think are counted – frogeyedpeas Mar 2 '14 at 4:4810 +1 Now try counting the squares in the background image of this SE site. – Andrew Larsson Mar 2 '14 at 23:04 add a comment up vote7down voteGenerally speaking, most puzzles that are written are intended to be answered using the minimum number of assumptions possible to arrive at the correct solution. William of Ockham first stated this principle as a guideline, commonly known as Occam's Razor. The exceptions to this principle are those that are trick questions, which are usually worded in a way that suggest that the immediately obvious answer isn't correct, or appear as an optical illusion of some sort.Even questions that are trick questions generally have one correct answer; we can arrive at the suitable solution by way of Occam's Razor as well. The types of problems that we are given in school textbooks, for example, all abide by Occam's Razor; the intent is to prove critical thinking and analysis skills, not "thinking outside the box" skills (a sad truth, really, as we'd do much better as a society if the latter were true).This puzzle, and others along the same vein, are generally meant to invoke critical thinking; find the correct answer with the minimum number of assumptions necessary to solve the problem. The question is asking is to find the number of squares, a square being defined as a closed object with four sides, with each side meeting at 90 degree angles, and each side being the same length.For example, this Stock Photo shows a square window; it's mentioned as such in the description. The fact that it contains four smaller squares is irrelevant here; most people will naturally state that this is a square window (note, I didn't actually measure it, so it may not be perfectly square, but it appears as such, and we'll take it at face value for purposes of this discussion). This window actually has five squares; the frame plus the four smaller squares from the lattice that reinforces the glass.Since the question doesn't state that any of the squares are floating or are in any other way special, and since the question also doesn't appear to be an optical illusion, such as this optical illusion question, we can apply Occam's Razor to come up with the obvious solution.Using Occam's Razor, we can state the following "truths" about this image:Each angle in the image appears to be 90 degrees.Each line in the image appears to be unbroken, and can thus participate as a side in a closed object that has four corners connected at 90 degree angles and may either be a rectangle or a square.The lines for the offset squares in the middle of the grid appear to be the same length as any of the other 1x1 squares in this grid, and their vertices appear to land exactly in the middle of the squares in the grid.Assuming that this question isn't an optical illusion, which it clearly does not appear to be, the obvious solution to the question is 40. We arrive at this answer by enumerating all of the squares of various sizes and adding them together.1 square for the outside border of the square grid (4×4)(4×4)4 squares that are 9/16th the entire size of the square grid (3×3)(3×3)9 squares that are 1/4th of the entire size of the square grid (2×2)(2×2)18 squares that are 1/16th of the entire size of the square grid (1×1)(1×1); the 16 aligned in a grid plus the 2 that are overlaying the grid.8 squares that are 1/64th of the entire size of the square grid (0.5×0.5)(0.5×0.5), caused by the offset squares being bisected by the grid lines.shareciteimprove this answeredited May 8 '14 at 6:10 Chris Brooks4,18022652answered Mar 2 '14 at 5:40user13241314 Am I the only one that still thinks invoking Occam's razor here is a misuse of Occam's razor which is a general 'rule of thumb'-type principal applied to explanations of phenomena, as opposed to calculations? This answers appears to do nothing more than obfuscate the fairly simple problem of finding all embedded geometric squares in the image, which is a well defined problem. – Dan Rust Mar 2 '14 at 19:04 add a comment up vote5down voteTo find total squares of n×nn×n squares, the total no. of squares in it is given by:n2+(n−1)2+(n−2)2…12n2+(n−1)2+(n−2)2…12In the box above of 4×44×4, the total no. of squares are 42+32+22+12=3042+32+22+12=30 Additionally, there are 22 small squares in the middle along with 4 even smaller squares each. They total to 1010 squares.∴∴ The total squares is 30+10=4030+10=40shareciteimprove this answeranswered May 29 '15 at 18:57 Yagna Patel6,43612044   Total squares of size k units in an nxn unit grid is (n+1-k)^2 ;k≤n. – ARi Jan 28 '16 at 13:34add a comment up vote0down voteTaking the side of each small square as ' one ' ( excluding the two squares in the middle ) ; the number of squares = 16 (1x1 squares)+9 (2x2 squares)+4(3x3 squares) +1(4x4 square) = 30 ................................The two square in the middle have small sqares , with each side having a value of 1/2 . So the total no. of squares of these two squares = 2x [4(1/2x1/2 squares)+1 (1x1 square)] =10 .......Thus the total number of squares , are 30+10 =40
Afterlife
AfterlifeYou're gonna lose your baby faceBaby but some things never go away,Afterlife
El Camino Del Diablo
El Camino Del DiabloWe drove till the road turned to dirt and stone,Winding round country roads.By the light of the shadowsWe budded and bloomed and drank in the rain,We fought and fussed and questioned why we came.Where am I now,Lost enough to give up?Or mysteriously overflowing my cup
In the Hours of Folding Flowers
In the Hours of Folding FlowersIn the hours of folding flowersMoving water, peaceful dreamsHaunted by beds and lessons,Trespassers and thieves’Fiery bridgesMy true loveMoving mountainsPictures and placesFist full of facesEmpty nested in the wave of days.
Invisible Like Music
Invisible Like MusicThe whistle of the freight train howls into townRolling like thunder going, goingFading and then silent and gone.My heart calls out heavy with memory,Driving past streets where we used to live,Seeing my family grow and age and fade.Grandmother.Our family tree full of branches,From branches grow branchesI cannot begin to trace all the pathsThat lead us and will lead us,My great-grandmother and namesake,Invisible like music,It is a blessing to have an occasionTo celebrate and come together,To rekindle our common thread,To see and feel the joy and love of each other,All the ones who cannot be with,Their spirits are in our hearts
Tend Your Garden (The Seed)
Tend Your Garden (The Seed)Everything comes from a seedYour great granddaddyA pesky weedLike your faithOf a mustard grainA big oak treeIt’s all the sameIt’s the oldest storyIn a lost bookIt’s the answer to the darknessTend your garden
Nowhere
NowhereI'm nowhere nowAll the wild places there are to go,All the stranger people I used to know,Nowhere nowI knew you then,A nowhere friend,Highflyin’ scattered in the windI've been here beforeI've been in the darkness,And I've knocked on the door.Nowhere and nothingBut peace drifting between starsWonders never cease.
The Darkness of Winter Wondering
The Darkness of Winter WonderingWhen I sleep I only dream, old faces and make believe.When what I wanted, what I’ve always wantedSeems like a drowning dreamWhere I wake to breathThe ache aged our hearts and shook our faith.The excitement of our new life togetherAll but unraveled by loss and regretStill in the darkness of winter wonderingWhat could come but another dark storm?When something is gone and cannot return.What are we to do while waiting and wishingIn all directionsFor a silver lining in our band of gold.
Used to Be
Used to BeUsed to be a million thingsA million dreamsLiving in a fantasyUsed to beUsed to be and be and eat and sleepWho is that girl?She is decidingTryingCryingCooking dinner terrifiedThat there is no satisfactionOnly the whippoorwill’s songOn and on and on.
The Rings May 11, 1974
The Rings May 11, 1974Leaves to arrive going nowhere,Hazel my closest friend,Hard as it is seeking and hidingLooking and finding,The great big questionWhy am I winding?It was perfectA ring of roses,Love strong as death.That's where I amIn the mountains and sand,Where the sky meets the land,When you are a lion and I am a lambHazel my love where does it end.
The Man in the Moon
The Man in the MoonI would like a good, easy explanationOf this riddle and rhymeThis escape and declineThe dark in the nightEach of us is a moon sometimes,Showing our face full and waning,The tides different each night.
The Old Home
The Old HomeLast night rocking and talking till the sky turnedFrom gold to blue to black.Pictures of the day seen and swept up,It's quiet here cows on the hill,Birds and bugs sing and chirp.The whippoorwill cries out from the eastWe talk of family,Mama and Daddy, babies and dying,The banjo sings the lonesome crying song,Our first night at the old home,Yesterday he said sweet thingsLike I make him believe in love.I feel this love I'm in is another worldWhere anything is possible.
Waiting Like Winter in Ohio
Waiting Like Winter in OhioThere's just a need for a place to leave,And enough hope to get us off the ground.There was a story my mother told me.I carry it all around,A little girl and a ragged doll,Looking for gold trying to find the reason,But nobody knows,Waiting like winter in Ohio.
Yellow Flowers
Yellow FlowersI don’t understand why he had to cut them all downYellow flowers round the barn.They were covered in bugs making loveSo lovely as they sway and blow with the breezeHe went in swinging,RoaringLeaving noneThe fallen ones laid by the road wilting
The Black Painting
The Black PaintingAnd then what a childish thing to think,This isn't what I wanted.Lying awake wondering, dreading, regretting, thinking,Am I ready and for what? I feel lonely for youth and the cityFor friends I once hadDreams I used to think weren’t so far away.How do you know that you're doingWhat you need to be doing?Or what you should be doingOr doing whatever you can to not do anything,And what's the difference, what's the opposite of run awayMy worlds become so small,I was so sure with such high hopes,And where have they gone?Gone with the fireflies too afraid and always wantingWith empty hands doing nothing.Are these years lost? All these aimless yearsWhen you're young you think there's endless possibilities,Nothing but promise you’re yet to see life drag alongProgressing slowly. Still waiting wanting without believing.There is part of me that hopes I have done the right thing,That my life isn't the mess it seems,And that a miracle is just around the corner.
Angel For John
Angel For JohnSometimes I'm ready to go up up awayOut of my face and my family nameFrom my dollars and change.Out of my mind and my long goodbyeFrom my glass of wine and a tear in my eye.Is there something wrong with me,That I can never be? Just be.I need a drink or something to eatWorried about everythingI just want to be happy.I try to dig down, down to the meatPassed all I see on the TV,TV and then on the streetIts like history’s stuck on repeat.
Hunting Someone Else’s Treasure
Hunting Someone Else’s TreasureJune died in November when the cold came cancerI went to the auction the lawn strewn with old furnitureAnd wagons piled with wooden toys that sold for hundreds,Boxes of mismatched knickknacks,A miniature dishwasher,Salt and pepper shakersLadies ran up the bidding on the pretty patterned feed sacksI spent a dollar on a bag of necklaces with matching earrings.Two dollars on a box of quilt scrapsA half made dress, pattern pieces still pinned to itI drank a Coke and walked around with the rest of the oglers.Hunting someone else’s treasuresOld farm equipment, plows, rakes and bedspringsI watch myself pass in a vanity mirrorThinking of the Sunday dinner I sat next to herWe were killing time waiting for dessert.
I am the River Now
I am the River NowDid I mention I'm leaving, looking for secretsOne day I will think of these timesBefore my adventures of life began,Before I left the comfort of homeFor the open sky and stretching land.I soak in this moment here at the beginning.I've been so excited for the coming of summer and new life,I feel the river rushing, winding all the places it’s going,All the places it’s been. I want to go with the river,Flooding the field with muddy water.
My Old Man
My Old ManMy old man’s been with me through the summertime,Wintertime, all the time,Ghost white goodbyeStack the record player you can't rewind,All the time.
Rising as the Sun
Rising as the SunGone away to come rising as the sun.Look at all we've done easily washed awayWith time marching on,Life goes the way hair growsCuts heal and wrinkles appear.The way mothers become grandmothersMs. Holly's turning back to dirt by the creek.The clouds move across the sky,What's new becomes used,A story like a star still shining after it’s died.It's hard to have all these faces in my mind,Everyone gone but still inside me,I don't want to forget anything or anyoneThat made an imprint of love.
The House
The HouseThe house is aglow and surrounded by peaceA crescent moon glows from the blanket of blueDarkening blue. Stiches of stars emerge.The clouds move over us like ghostsDrifting to the sound in the distance.The trees black against the sky.The old house is alive and filled with hope,Such promise in the sunny days of spring.I am reminded of our first nightsCovered in the calm eveningWhen the dreads of the day are overOne bat flits, swooping.The cat curled and sleeping.More stars now.What is it we love so much about this faded house?All it’s windows lit looking out keeping us safeAs we find her flaws and blame her ageShe’s seen so much bloom and die inside herThe old gray mare’s better for the wearHolding joy’s mystery and sorrow with beauty and pride.
Three Years, Three Months and Three Days
Three Years, Three Months and Three DaysIt’s magicNot at all easily explained by science and nonfiction. Where does it come from?Lord tell me who.Show me Mr. Rogers,Is it made like plastic forks, knives and spoonsWith mold and a motor,A picture inside of a picture,Trouble close as the thoughtHow can we win if we’re always at odds?Confusion, delusion,People always respond to the truthCourage I've almost had, still always with doubt.When I don't know how to say what I think,When I don't know what I think, only a feeling rotting.Where does thought come from and what when there’s none?Why there's something to be said on the tip of my tongueYet not a word said.
The Oceans of Concrete
The Oceans of ConcreteI am a pirateSailing the oceans ofConcrete that is my countryThere is so much nothing I do love
The Thaw
The ThawI can feel spring nearing even in the chilly morning air,Before the sunrise while frost still lye’s about,The icy edge of winter is fading into the dampness of spring.Birds chirp and sing.In my heart I feel again the warmth of hope,Excitement and peace,The beginning of new things.
The Three Elements (Sky, Dirt & Glacier)
The Three Elements (Sky, Dirt & Glacier)The sky (or celestial dome) is everything that lies above the surface of the Earth, including the atmosphere and outer space. In the field of astronomy, the sky is also called the celestial sphere. This is viewed from Earth's surface as an imaginary dome where the sun, stars, planets, and the moon are seen to be traveling.Dirt is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. The Earth's body of dirt is the pedosphere, which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a mean of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth's atmosphere; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the dirt.A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features.
Tobacco Trail
Tobacco TrailThe whirlwind and a trail of tobacco,Out where the wild things lived.Locked behind three iron gates and barbed wire,Waiting for the next Devil’s liar.
Tornado and the Hurricane
Tornado and the HurricaneThe rain came and washed away the winterIf no one knows there is no answerDown in the valley far from the sea,From the top of the hills where the birds are free,It’s hard to be a friend and a lover and a used to be.We’ve been so many thingsLike the clouds coming rain,Your colors change with the day,Time as the skyBlue and white, gold and gray,Tornado and the hurricane.
What Was the Dream
What Was the DreamWe walked to the creekUp and movingThrough the mud,Climbing slippery rocksThe sunset, sky litToday melting falling apartThe life we leaveTried to chaseWhat was the dreamFadingI cannot regretThe sun settingIt was lovely in the darkHis lips unraveledAs you wish I could
When One of Us is Gone
When One of Us is GoneThe feeling of the leaving,The being and the being gone,Amplified and repeating,Windows that never open,Down the sidewalk, down the road, over the bridge,Past barking dogs, bottles and plastic.Stopping to listen to moving water,Letting my mind go and come back, wishing for things.When one of us is goneThe other’s living on sleeping in a song,Are we the best of mother, I start to wonder, eager,Calm and cooking, we were then; remember?Again, again, every story ending to begin.
The Fools Journey
The Fools JourneyThe Fool's JourneyThe Fool's Journey is a metaphor for the journey through life. Each major arcana card stands for a stage on that journey - an experience that a person must incorporate to realize his wholeness. These 22 descriptions are based on the keywords for each major arcana card. The keywords are highlighted in the text. A card's number is in parentheses.The FoolWe begin with the Fool (0), a card of beginnings. The Fool stands for each of us as we begin our journey of life. He is a fool because only a simple soul has the innocent faith to undertake such a journey with all its hazards and pain.At the start of his trip, the Fool is a newborn - fresh, open and spontaneous. The figure on Card 0 has his arms flung wide, and his head held high. He is ready to embrace whatever comes his way, but he is also oblivious to the cliff edge he is about to cross. The Fool is unaware of the hardships he will face as he ventures out to learn the lessons of the world.The Fool stands somewhat outside the rest of the major arcana. Zero is an unusual number. It rests in the exact middle of the number system - poised between the positive and negative. At birth, the Fool is set in the middle of his own individual universe. He is strangely empty (as is zero), but imbued with a desire to go forth and learn. This undertaking would seem to befolly, but is it?The Magician and the High PriestessOn setting out, the Fool immediately encounters the Magician (1) and the High Priestess (2) - the great balancing forces that make up the perceived world. It is a feature of the material universe that as soon as we name some aspect of experience, we automatically evoke its opposite.The Magician is the positive side. He represents the active, masculine power of creative impulse. He is also our conscious awareness. The Magician is the force that allows us to impact the world through a concentration of individual will and power. The High Priestess is the negative side. She is the mysterious unconscious. She provides the fertile ground in which creative events occur. The High Priestess is our unrealized potential waiting for an active principle to bring it to expression. The terms positive and negative do not imply "good" and "bad." These are human distinctions that do not apply in the tarot. The Magician and the High Priestess are absolutely equal in value and importance. Each is necessary for balance. We may view the negative as our Shadow, but without shadows, we cannot see the light, and without a ground of potential, we cannot create.The EmpressAs he grows, the Fool becomes more and more aware of his surroundings. As with most babies, he first recognizes his Mother - the warm, loving woman who nourishes and cares for him. He also comes to know Mother Earth, who nurtures him in a larger sense.The Empress (3) represents the world of nature and sensation. A baby delights in exploring everything he touches, tastes and smells. He cannot get enough of the sights and sounds that enchant his senses. It is natural to delight in the abundant goodness of Mother Earth who surrounds us with her support.The EmperorThe next person the Fool encounters is the Father in the figure of the Emperor (4). He is the representative of structure and authority. As a baby leaves his mother's arms, he learns that there are patterns to his world. Objects respond in predictable ways that can be explored. The child experiences a new kind of pleasure that comes from discovering order.The Fool also encounters rules. He learns that his will is not always paramount and there are certain behaviors necessary for his well-being. There are people in authority who will enforce such guidelines. These restrictions can be frustrating, but, through the patient direction of the Father, the Fool begins to understand their purpose.The HierophantEventually, the Fool ventures out of his home into the wider world. He is exposed to the beliefs and traditions of his culture and begins his formal education. The Hierophant (5) represents the organized belief systems that begin to surround and inform the growing child.A Hierophant is someone who interprets arcane knowledge and mysteries. On Card 5 we see a religious figure blessing two acolytes. Perhaps he is inducting them into church membership. Although this image is religious, it is really a symbol for initiations of all kinds.The child is trained in all the practices of his society and becomes part of a particular culture and worldview. He learns to identify with a group and discovers a sense of belonging. He enjoys learning the customs of his society and showing how well he can conform to them.The LoversEventually, the Fool faces two new challenges. He experiences the powerful urge for sexual union with another person. Before, he was mainly self-centered. Now he feels the balancing tendency, pictured in the Lovers (6), to reach out and become half of a loving partnership. He yearns for relationship.The Fool also needs to decide upon his own beliefs. It is well enough to conform while he learns and grows, but at some point, he must determine his own values if he is to be true to himself. He must start to question received opinion.The ChariotBy the time the Fool becomes an adult, he has a strong identity and a certain mastery over himself. Through discipline and will-power, he has developed an inner control which allows him to triumph over his environment.The Chariot (7) represents the vigorous ego that is the Fool's crowning achievement so far. On Card 7, we see a proud, commanding figure riding victoriously through his world. He is in visible control of himself and all he surveys. For the moment, the Fool's assertive success is all he might wish, and he feels a certain self-satisfaction. His is the assured confidence of youth. StrengthOver time, life presents the Fool with new challenges, some that cause suffering and disillusionment. He has many occasions to draw on the quality of Strength (8). He is pressed to develop his courage and resolve and find the heart to keep going despite setbacks.The Fool also discovers the quiet attributes of patience and tolerance. He realizes the willful command of the Chariot must be tempered by kindliness and the softer power of a loving approach. At times, intense passions surface, just when the Fool thought he had everything, including himself, under control.HermitSooner or later, the Fool is led to ask himself the age-old question "Why?" He becomes absorbed with the search for answers, not from an idle curiosity, but out of a deeply felt need to find out why people live, if only to suffer and die. The Hermit (9) represents the need to find deeper truth.The Fool begins to look inward, trying to understand his feelings and motivations. The sensual world holds less attraction for him, and he seeks moments of solitude away from the frantic activity of society. In time he may seek a teacher or guide who can give him advice and direction.Wheel of FortuneAfter much soul-searching, the Fool begins to see how everything connects. He has a vision of the world's wondrous design; its intricate patterns and cycles. The Wheel of Fortune (10) is a symbol of the mysterious universe whose parts work together in harmony. When the Fool glimpses the beauty and order of the world, if only briefly, he finds some of the answers he is seeking.Sometimes his experiences seem to be the work of fate. A chance encounter or miraculous occurrence begins the process of change. The Fool may recognize his destiny in the sequence of events that led him to this turning point. Having been solitary, he feels ready for movement and action again. His perspective is wider, and he sees himself within the grander scheme of a universal plan. His sense of purpose is restored.JusticeThe Fool must now decide what this vision means to him personally. He looks back over his life to trace the cause and effect relationships that have brought him to this point. He takes responsibility for his past actions so he can make amends and ensure a more honest course for the future. The demands of Justice (11) must be served so that he can wipe the slate clean.This is a time of decision for the Fool. He is making important choices. Will he remain true to his insights, or will he slip back into an easier, more unaware existence that closes off further growth?Hanged ManUndaunted, the Fool pushes on. He is determined to realize his vision, but he finds life is not so easily tamed. Sooner or later, he encounters his personal cross - an experience that seems too difficult to endure. This overwhelming challenge humbles him until he has no choice but to give up and let go.At first, the Fool feels defeated and lost. He believes he has sacrificed everything, but from the depths he learns an amazing truth. He finds that when he relinquishes his struggle for control, everything begins to work as it should. By becoming open and vulnerable, the Fool discovers the miraculous support of his Inner Self. He learns to surrender to his experiences, rather than fighting them. He feels a surprising joy and begins to flow with life.The Fool feels suspended in a timeless moment, free of urgency and pressure. In truth, his world has been turned upside-down. The Fool is the Hanged Man (12), apparently martyred, but actually serene and at peace.DeathThe Fool now begins to eliminate old habits and tired approaches. He cuts out nonessentials because he appreciates the basics of life. He goes through endings as he puts the outgrown aspects of his life behind him. He process may seem like dying because it is the death (13) of his familiar self to allow for the growth of a new one. At times this inexorable change seems to be crushing the Fool, but eventually he rises up to discover that death is not a permanent state. It is simply a transition to a new, more fulfilling way of life.TemperanceSince embracing the Hermit, the Fool has swung wildly back and forth on an emotional pendulum. Now, he realizes the balancing stability of temperance (14). He discovers true poise and equilibrium. By experiencing the extremes, he has come to appreciate moderation. The Fool has combined all aspects of himself into a centered whole that glows with health and well-being. How graceful and soft is the angel on Card 14 compared to the powerful but rigid ruler in the Chariot (Card 7)? [Note] The Fool has come a long way in realizing the harmonious life. DevilThe Fool has his health, peace of mind and a graceful composure. What more could he need? On everyday terms, not much, but the Fool is courageous and continues to pursue the deepest levels of his being. He soon comes face to face with the Devil (15).The Devil is not an evil, sinister figure residing outside of us. He is the knot of ignorance and hopelessness lodged within each of us at some level. The seductive attractions of the material bind us so compellingly that we often do not even realize our slavery to them.We live in a limited range of experience, unaware of the glorious world that is our true heritage. The couple on Card 15 are chained, but acquiescent. They could so easily free themselves, but they do not even apprehend their bondage. [Note] They look like the Lovers, but are unaware that their love is circumscribed within a narrow range. The price of this ignorance is an inner core of despair.TowerHow can the Fool free himself from the Devil? Can he root out his influence? The Fool may only find release through the sudden change represented by the Tower (16). The Tower is the ego fortress each of us has built around his beautiful inner core. Gray, cold and rock-hard, this fortress seems to protect but is really a prison.Sometimes only a monumental crisis can generate enough power to smash the walls of the Tower. On Card 16 we see an enlightening bolt striking this building. It has ejected the occupants who seem to be tumbling to their deaths. The crown indicates they were once proud rulers; now they are humbled by a force stronger than they.The Fool may need such a severe shakeup if he is to free himself, but the resulting revelation makes the painful experience worthwhile. The dark despair is blasted away in an instant, and the light of truth is free to shine down.StarThe Fool is suffused with a serene calm. The beautiful images on the Star (17) attest to this tranquility. The woman pictured on Card 17 is naked, her soul no longer hidden behind any disguise. Radiant stars shine in a cloudless sky serving as a beacon of hope and inspiration.The Fool is blessed with a trust that completely replaces the negative energies of the Devil. His faith in himself and the future is restored. He is filled with joy and his one wish is to share it generously with the rest of the world. His heart is open, and his love pours out freely. This peace after the storm is a magical moment for the Fool.MoonWhat effect could spoil this perfect calm? Is there another challenge for the Fool? In fact, it is his bliss that makes him vulnerable to the illusions of the Moon (18). The Fool's joy is a feeling state. His positive emotions are not yet subject to mental clarity. In his dreamy condition, the Fool is susceptible to fantasy, distortion and a false picture of the truth.The Moon stimulates the creative imagination. It opens the way for bizarre and beautiful thoughts to bubble up from the unconscious, but deep-seated fears and anxieties also arise. These experiences may cause the Fool to feel lost and bewildered.SunIt is the lucid clarity of the Sun (19) that directs the Fool's imagination. The Sun's illumination shines in all the hidden places. It dispels the clouds of confusion and fear. It enlightens, so the Fool both feels and understands the goodness of the world.Now, he enjoys a vibrant energy and enthusiasm. The Star's openness has solidified into an expansive assurance. The Fool is the naked babe pictured on Card 19, riding out joyously to face a new day. No challenge is too daunting. The Fool feels a radiant vitality. He becomes involved in grand undertakings as he draws to himself everything he needs. He is able to realize his greatness.JudgementThe Fool has been reborn. His false, ego-self has been shed, allowing his radiant, true self to manifest. He has discovered that joy, not fear, is at life's center.The Fool feels absolved. He forgives himself and others, knowing that his real self is pure and good. He may regret past mistakes, but he knows they were due to his ignorance of his true nature. He feels cleansed and refreshed, ready to start anew.It is time for the Fool to make a deeper Judgement (20) about his life. His own personal day of reckoning has arrived. Since he now sees himself truly, he can make the necessary decisions about the future. He can choose wisely which values to cherish, and which to discard.The angel on Card 20 is the Fool's Higher Self calling him to rise up and fulfill his promise. He discovers his true vocation - his reason for entering this life. Doubts and hesitations vanish, and he is ready to follow his dream.WorldThe Fool reenters the World (21), but this time with a more complete understanding. He has integrated all the disparate parts of himself and achieved wholeness. He has reached a new level of happiness and fulfillment.The Fool experiences life as full and meaningful. The future is filled with infinite promise. In line with his personal calling, he becomes actively involved in the world. He renders service by sharing his unique gifts and talents and finds that he prospers at whatever he attempts. Because he acts from inner certainty, the whole world conspires to see that his efforts are rewarded. His accomplishments are many.So the Fool's Journey was not so foolish after all. Through perseverance and honesty, he reestablished the spontaneous courage that first impelled him on his search for Self, but now he is fully aware of his place in the world. This cycle is over, but, the Fool will never stop growing. Soon he will be ready to begin a new journey that will lead him to ever greater levels of understanding.
The Pictures Tell the Story
The Pictures Tell the StoryErnest WithersFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaErnest Columbus Withers, Sr.BornAugust 7, 1922DiedOctober 15, 2007 (aged 85)OccupationFreelance photographer, Memphis policemanNotable workPhotographs of the segregatedSouth in the 1940s-2000s, Negro league baseball, and the Memphis blues scene, Pictures Tell the Story by Ernest C. Withers, other books including Ernest C. Withers The Memphis Blues Again-Six Decades of Memphis Music Photographs, and many Jet Magazinephotographs and more.Great Grandchildren Darrell Wilburn,Lauren Tyus,Arianna Norton,Hasani Withers,Kendi Withers,Home townMemphis, TennesseeErnest C. Withers (August 7, 1922 – October 15, 2007) was an American photojournalist. He is best known for capturing over 60 years of African American history in the segregated South, with iconic images of the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Emmett Till, Sanitation Worker's Strike, Negro league baseball, and musicians including those related to Memphis blues and Memphis soul.[1][2]Ernest Withers work has been archived by the Library of Congress and has been slated for the permanent collection of the Smithsonian Institution's in-progress National Museum of African American History and Culture, in Washington, D.C.[1] Contents  [hide] 1Biography1.1Early life1.2Personal life1.3Career1.4Death1.5FBI Document Release2Ernest Withers Museum and Collection3Publications4See also5References6External links Biography[edit]Early life[edit]Ernest C. Withers was born in Memphis, Tennessee, to Arthur Withers and Pearl Withers of Marshall County, Mississippi; he had a step-mother known as Mrs. Minnie Withers. Ba Ba [Father] Withers exhibited interest in photography from a young age. He took his first photograph in high school after his sister gave him a camera she received from a classmate. He met his wife Dorothy Curry of Brownsville, Tennessee (they remained married for 66 years), at Manassas High School in Memphis, Tennessee.During World War II he received training at the Army School of Photography. After the war, Withers served as one of Memphis' first African-American police officers.[3]Personal life[edit]Withers and his wife Dorothy had eight children together (seven boys and one girl, Rosalind Withers). He also had a second daughter from Memphis, Tennessee named Frances Williams. All of his sons accompanied him as apprentice photographers at different points in his career, including Ernest, Jr., Perry O., Clarence (Joshua), E., Wendell J., Dedrick (Teddy) J., Dyral L., and Andrew (Rome).[4] His business was called Withers Photography Studio.Withers enjoyed traveling, visiting family members and entertaining guest at his home including Brock Peters, Jim Kelly, Eartha Kitt, Alex Haley, Ivan van Sertima, Stokley Carmichael (Kwame Ture), and many others in the entertainment world and black consciousness movement. He attended Gospel Temple Baptist Church in Memphis, Tennessee. He was also an all-round (high-school to professional) sports enthusiast.[5]Career[edit] Mose Wright stands and points to J. W. Milam, a white man accused of kidnapping and murdering Wright's 14-year-old great-nephew Emmett Till, during the murder trial in Sumner, Mississippi, September 1955. Original photographer Ernest Withers from The Chicago DefenderWithers was active for approximately 60 years, with his most noted work being the images captured of the Civil Rights Movement.He traveled with Martin Luther King Jr. during his public life. Withers' coverage of the Emmett Till murder trial brought national attention to the racial violence taking place during the 1950s in Mississippi, among other places. Withers appeared in a TV documentary about the murdered 14-year-old entitled The American Experience: The Murder of Emmett Till.[5]Withers served as official photographer for Stax Records for 20 years.[1]Between 1 million and 5 million images are estimated to have been taken during Withers' career, with current efforts in progress for preservation and digitization.[1]Death[edit]In 2007 Withers died from the complications of a stroke in his hometown of Memphis.FBI Document Release[edit]In 2013, the FBI released documents relating to Ernest Withers in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request by a Memphis newspaper, The Commercial Appeal.[6]The documents begin in 1946 with the FBI investigating Withers as a possible communist, as he was a member of the United Negro Allied Veterans of America (UNAVA) after serving in World War II, and the group was thought to have communist ties.[7] In a document dated 1948, an FBI informant who served in the military with Withers reported that he knew Withers to have "highly reliable and excellent character, particularly with reference to loyalty and patriotism to the United States", in response to the suspicion of communism.[8]Document 44-3, dated March 1960, contains the report of an informant who discovered information regarding library sit-ins from The Commercial Appeal newspapers, as well as hearing about them from Withers.[9]A document dated February 2, 1961 is an investigation of Withers wherein Memphis Police Department Chief, James C. MacDonald gives information relating to Withers service as a policeman. Macdonald states that Withers was one of the "first negro officers ever hired by the Memphis PD", but that he was fired after 3 years. The document concludes with a recommendation that Withers be contacted to become an informant regarding general criminal matters. The recommendation states that Withers activities "will not be directed in any manner with regard to racial matters or security matters".[9]The FBI documents contain the details of Withers' beating and incarceration in Jackson, Mississippi following a civil rights demonstration in which he took part.[10]A 1968 document contains the first reference to an informant, ME 338-R(Ghetto), widely believed to be a reference to Withers and inferred by the FBI's responses to FOIA court actions. ME 338-R(Ghetto) provided a variety of general information including pictures and brief descriptions of meetings and events. There is limited specific information, commonly relating to a militant group named the Invaders. ME 338-R(Ghetto) recorded the violence and connections of the Invaders including a leaflet on the manufacturing of firebombs, and links to prostitution.[11][12][13]ME 338-R(Ghetto) was an informant for 2 years, 1968 through the final report in 1970, with 19 reports that include some reference to the informant. A total of 10 pictures were provided by the informant in the released documents.[14]Ernest Withers died years before the FOIA request was made, thus no direct response was possible. However, at the 2000 Withers exhibition at the Chrysler Museum of Art in Norfolk, Virginia, Withers said he had FBI agents regularly looking over his shoulder and questioning him, "I never tried to learn any high powered secrets,” Withers said. “It would have just been trouble.…[The FBI] was pampering me to catch whatever leaks I dropped, so I stayed out of meetings where decisions were being made.” [15]Civil rights leader Andrew Young commented after the release of the FBI file, "The movement was transparent and didn't have anything to hide anyway".[16]
The Duality of Blue and Brown
The Duality of Blue and BrownDuality TheoryEvery LP is associated with another LP, called the dual (in this case, the original LP is called the primal). The relation between an LP and its dual is extremely important for understanding the linear programming (and non-linear programming, indeed). It also provides insights into the so called sensitivity analysis.1 What is the dual of an LP in standard form?Consider an LP in standard form:MaximizeAx ≤ b,  x 1   a 1 1 a 1 2Z = cT x x ≥ 0.such that HereIts dual is the following minimization LP: Minimizesuch that Herea 1 n   b 1   c 1  x= x2 , A= a21 a22 a2n , b= b2 , c= c2 . .   . . ... . xn am1 am2 amn bm cnExample: Suppose that the primal LP isunder constraintsAT y ≥ c, y 1 y= y2   . W = bT y y ≥ 0.ymMaximize Z = 2x1 + 3x22x1 + x2 ≤ 4 −x1 + x2 ≤ 1 −3x1 +x2 ≤−11 .  . and x1, x2 ≥ 0. In this case,21 ∙2 4 A=−1 1, c= 3 , b= 1 −3 1 −1 Minmize W = bT y = 4y1 + y2 − y32y1 −y2 −3y3 ≥2 y1 + y2 + y3 ≥ 3Therefore, the dual is: under constraintsand y1, y2, y3 ≥ 0.2 What is the meaning of the dual? How can we write down adual for LPs of other forms?The dual LP in the preceding section seems a bit out of the blue. Actually, the value of the dual LP defines an upper bound for the value of the primal LP. More precisely, we claim that:Theorem: Suppose x is feasible for the primal, and y is feasible for the dual. Then cT x ≤ bT y.Proof: By definition, AT y − c ≥ 0. Since x is non-negative component-wise, we have (ATy−c)T x≥0 ⇒ yTAx−cTx≥0.However, since Ax ≤ b and y is non-negative component-wise, we have yT b − cT x ≥ yT Ax − cT x ≥ 0.This completes the proof.2Remark: The optimal value of the primal (maximization LP) is less than or equal to that of the dual (minimization LP).Remark: Suppose there exist x∗ (feasible for the primal) and y∗ (feasible for the dual) such that cTx∗ =bTy∗.Then x∗ is an optimal for the primal LP, and y∗ is an optimal solution to the dual LP (why?).The given proof is very simple, but does not shed much light to the construction of the dual of LP in other forms. We should instead specialize to the concrete example from the previous section, and give a detailed account of how the dual is obtained.2Example (revisited): Suppose that the primal LP isMaximize Z = 2x1 + 3x2under constraintsand x1, x2 ≥ 0.2x1 + x2 ≤ 4 −x1 + x2 ≤ 1 −3x1 +x2 ≤−1Please keep in mind that we are searching for an LP (the dual) serving as an upper-bound of the primal LP.Construction of the dual: Let x = (x1,x2)T be a feasible solution to the primal LP, and y=(y1,y2,y3)T ∈R3.Consider the functionf = y1(2x1 +x2)+y2(−x1 +x2)+y3(−3x1 +x2)= x1(2y1 −y2 −3y3)+x2(y1 +y2 +y3)1. Since all the constraints in the primal LP is ì≤î, we need to assign sign constraints y1 ≥ 0,y2 ≥ 0 and y3 ≥ 0, which leads tof ≤ 4y1 + y2 − y3 = bT y.2. Since x1 ≥ 0 and x2 ≥ 0 in the primal, we need to assign constraints 2y1 −y2 −3y3 ≥2which leads toThis ends the construction.y1 + y2 + y3 ≥ 3 f ≥ 2x1 + 3x2 = cT x.Construction dual for an LP in general form: The constraint of ì≥î type is not a big issue, since one can change it into ì≤î by multiplying −1 on both sides.As for the constraint of ì=î type, say, in the above example, the constraint is indeed −x1 + x2 = 1, then we do not need to restrict y2 to be positive, and still have the desired inequality.If one decision variable, say x1 has no sign constraint, then we have to restrict 2y1 − y2 − 3y3 = 2in order for the inequalities to work.We have the following correspondence in building the dual of an LP in general form.32PrimalDualObjective function Row (i)Row (i) Variable (j) Variable (j)Max Z = cT x ai1x1 + + ainxn = bi ai1x1 + + ainxn ≤ bi xj ≥ 0xj has no sign constraintMin W = bT y.no sign constrain on yiyi ≥ 0a1j y1 + a2j y2 + + amj ym ≥ cj a1j y1 + a2j y2 + + amj ym = cjThe dual of LP in canonical form: Suppose that the primal LP is in canonical form: Maximize Z=cTx, suchthatAx=b, x≥0.Its dual isMinimize W = bT y, such that AT y ≥ c (no sign constraints on y).Example: Find the dual of the following LPs.Maximize Z = 2x1 + x2under constraintsx1 + x2 ≥ 4 −x1 + 2x2 ≤ 1−3x1 + x2 =−1Solution: The dual can be found as follows: Convert the first ≥ constraints to−x1 − x2 ≤ −4Min W = −4y1 + y2 − y3. y1 ≥ 0y2 ≥ 0no sign constraint on y3 −y1 − y2 − 3y3 ≥ 2 −y1 + 2y2 + y3 = 1Question: As we have discussed before, a general LP can always be expressed in the canonical form (or standard form), with (possible) introduction of slack variables. Both of the original LP and this (equivalent) expanded LP will have its corresponding dual LP. The question is: are the two duals from equivalent primal LPs equivalent?The answer is affirmative, as the following example shows. Consider an LP in standard formand x1 ≥0, x2 ∈R. PrimalDual Objective function Row (1)Row (2)Row (3) Variable (1) Variable (2)Max Z = 2x1 + x2 −x1 − x2 ≤ −4−x1 + 2x2 ≤ 1 −3x1 + x2 = 1x1 ≥ 0x2 has no sign constraint MaximizeZ = 3x1 + x24under constraintsand x1, x2 ≥ 0. The expanded LP in canonical form is Maximize Z = 3x1 + x2under constraintsThe dual LP for the LP in the standard form isMax Z = 3x1 + x2 2x1 + x2 ≤ 2 −x1 + 2x2 ≤ 1 x1 ≥ 0x2 ≥ 0The dual for the expanded LP in canonical form isx1 ≥ 0 x2 ≥ 0 s1 ≥ 0 s2 ≥ 0The two dual LP are obviously equivalent.3 The dual of the dual is the primal2x1 +x2 ≤2 −x1 +x2 ≤12x1 + x2 + s1 = 2 −x1 + x2 + s2 = 1 PrimalDual Objective function Row (1)Row (2) Variable (1) Variable (2)Min W = 2y1 + y2. y1 ≥ 0y2 ≥ 02y1 − y2 ≥ 3y1 + y2 ≥ 1Min W = 2y1 + y2.y1 hasnosignconstraint −x1+x2+s2=1 y2hasnosignconstraint PrimalDual Objective function Row (1)Row (2) Variable (1) Variable (2) Slack Variable (1) Slack Variable (2)Max Z = 3x1 + x2 2x1+x2+s1 =2 2y1 − y2 ≥ 3 y1 + y2 ≥ 1 y1 ≥ 0y2 ≥ 0 The following result establishes the dual relation between the primal and the dual. Theorem: The dual of the dual is the primal.Proof. Without loss of generality, we will restrict ourselves to primal LPs in standard form. Suppose the primal issuch thatMaximize Z = cT x Ax ≤ b, x ≥ 0.52Its dual issuch thatMinimize W = bT y AT y ≥ c, y ≥ 0,which can be written in standard formMaximize − W = (−b)T y (−A)Ty ≤ −c, y ≥ 0.Minimize ZØ = (−c)T x °(−A)T¢T x ≥ −b, x ≥ 0,such thatThe dual of the dual is thereforesuch thatBut this equivalent to such thatWe complete the proof.4 The dual principleMaximizeAx ≤ b,Z = cT x x ≥ 0.In this section we study the extremely important dual theorem. We should state the theorem and give a proof. The proof relies on some important formulae from simplex algorithm.Dual Theorem: An LP has an optimal solution if and only if its dual has an optimal solution, and in this case their optimal values are equal.An immediate consequence of the above result is the following: Corollary: Exactly one of these three cases occurs:1. Both the Primal and the dual have no feasible solution.2. One is unbounded, and the other has no feasible solution.3. (normal case) Both have optimal solutions, and the optimal values are identical.Proof: Suppose that none of the primal and the dual has optimal solutions. This means that both LP are either unbounded or infeasible. We only need to argue that the two LPs cannot be unbounded at the same time. If so, the optimal value of the dual (minimization LP) is −∞ and the optimal value of the primal (maximization LP) is +∞. However, we know the value of the dual dominates the value of the primal, we have −∞ ≥ +∞, a contradiction. 262In fact, each of the three cases can occur. Exercise: Here is an example of normal case (check!)and its dualMaximize Z=3x1+4x2, suchthat x1+2x2 ≤1, x1,x2 ≥0. Minimize Z=y1, suchthat y1 ≥3, 2y1 ≥4, y1 ≥0.Both optimal values equal 3.Exercise: Here is an example where both primal and dual have no feasible solution (check!).Maximize Z=2x1+4x2, suchthat x1≤−5, −x2≤−2, x1,x2≥0. and its dualMinimize Z=−5y1−2y2, suchthat y1≥2, −y1≥4, y1,y2≥0. Exercise: Here is an example where the primal is unbounded, and the dual has no feasible solution.and its dualMaximize Z=x1, suchthat −x1 ≤3, −x1 ≤2, x1 ≥0. Minimize Z=3y1+2y2, suchthat −y1−y2≥1, y1,y2≥0.Can you construct an example where the primal has no feasible solution, and the dual is unbounded?Before the proof of the dual theorem, we will prepare ourselves in the next section with some useful observations and formulae from simplex algorithm. The proof is given in the section after.5 Some important formulae: getting the simplex tableau at any stage in terms of the original LPIn this section we discuss some important results regarding the simplex algorithm; i.e. how an LPís optimal tableau (indeed, any tableau) can be expressed in terms of the parameters from original LP? These results are not only useful for the proof of the dual theorem, but also for sensitivity analysis, and other advanced LP topics.5.1 Getting the simplex tableauConsider the following LP in canonical form: MaximizeZ = cT xAx = b, x ≥ 0.Here A is an m n matrix.such that7Question: Suppose we are informed that, in a simplex tableau the basic variables are xB = [xi1, ,xim].Can we construct the tableau (without going through the simplex from them beginning)? Answer: Well, let us start by definingxNB = [xim+1, ,xin]as the list of non-basic variables. Let Ai be the i-th column of A, andB = [Ai1, ,Aim], N = [Aim+1, ,Ain].In other words, B and N are the coefficient (sub)matrix for the basic variables and the non-basicvariables, respectively. Similarly, define ci1  cB = . , cim+1  cNB = . ,cimwhich are the coefficients for BV and NBV in the objective function, respectively.It follows that the original constraint Ax = b can be rewritten as A1x1 + A2x2 + + Anxn = b,which can be further expressed asAx = BxB + NxNB = b. By multiplying B−1 on both sides, we have(1) B−1Ax = xB + B−1NxNB = B−1b. If you read this equation in more details, it saysxik + a linear combination of non-basic variables = some constant.However, we know that in the simplex tableau with basic variables xB have the followingproperty: the row corresponding to basic variable xik can be interpreted as xik + a linear combination of non-basic variables = RHS.The preceding two equations, therefore, have to be identical. In other words, the simplex tableau at this stage is indeed,(2) B−1Ax = B−1b.But what about Row (0)? We know that Row (0) starts off with0 = Z − cT x = Z − cBT xB − cNBT xNB. 8cinWe want to express this equation in terms of Z and xNB only. However, it follows from (1) that cBT xB + cBT B−1NxNB = cBT B−1b,which in turn implies(3) Z + (cBT B−1N − cNBT )xNB = cBT B−1b.Note in equation (3) the coefficients of basic variables are zero, exactly as they should be. This gives the Row (0) for the simplex tableau. To write it more clearly, we can do the following:Z + (cBT B−1N − cNBT )xNB=  Z +(cBTB−1B−cBT)xB +(cBTB−1N −cNBT)xNB=  Z + cBT B−1BxB + cBT B−1NxNB − (cBT xB + cNBT xNB)=  Z +cBTB−1(BxB +NxNB)−(cBTxB +cNBTxNB)=  Z +cBTB−1Ax−cTx.In other words, Row (0) is(4) Z + (cBT B−1A − cT )x = cBT B−1b.In conclusion, the simplex tableau for an LP in canonical form isBasic VariableRowZxRHSZxB(0) .10cBT B−1A − cT B−1AcBT B−1b B−1 bRemark: Suppose we are only interested in a specific column, say, the column of xj. The above formulae imply that it is indeedBasic VariableRowZxjRHSZxB(0) .10cBTB−1Aj−cj B−1AjcBT B−1b B−1bwith Aj be the j-th column in matrix A.9Example: Consider the following LP:Maximize Z = −x1 + x2suchthat 2x1+x2 ≤ 4 x1+x2 ≤ 2x1,x2 ≥ 0.Suppose you are told that the basic variable in a simplex tableau is BV = (s1, x2). Constructthe simplex table. Is this the optimal table?Solution: We should first add slack variables and turn the LP into canonical form.We havex1, x2, s1, s2 ≥ 0.A=∙2 1 1 0 , xB=[s1,x2], B=∙1 1 , cB=∙0 .A bit algebra leads toB−1=∙1 −1 , 01Maximize Z =−x1 +x2 +0s1 +0s2such that 2x1 +x2 +s1 +0s2 = 4 x1+x2+0s1+s2 = 21101 01 1andandTherefore, the simplex tableau isThis table is optimal. 2 Exercise: Use simplex-algorithm to the above example to double-check the tableau.B−1A=∙1 −1 ∙2 1 1 0 =∙1 0 1 −1 , 01 1101 1101B−1b=∙1 −1 ∙4 =∙2 , cBTB−1b=£0 1§ ∙2 =2 0122 2cBB−1A−cT=£0 1§ ∙1 0 1 −1 −£−1 1 0 0§=£2 0 0 1§. 1101Basic VariableRowZx1 x2 s1 s2RHSZ s1 x2(0) (1) (2)1 0 02001 1 0 1 -1 11012 2 210Example: Consider the LP in canonical formMaximize Z = x1 + x2 + 2x3suchthat 2x1+x2+2x3 = 4 2x2+x3 = 5x1,x2,x3 ≥ 0.Suppose someone tells you that in the optimal tableau, the basic variables are BV = (x1, x2).Without solving the LP, check whether this information is valid. Solution: In this case, we haveB=∙2 1 , cB=∙1 . 021One can computeB−1=∙0.5 −0.25 , B−1A=∙0.5 −0.25 ∙2 1 2 =∙1 0 0.750 0.5 0 0.5 0 2 1 0 1 0.5 Therefore the coefficients for the decision variables arecBB−1A−cT=£1 1§ ∙1 0 0.75 −£1 1 2§=£0 0 −0.75§. 0 1 0.5Since there is a decision variable has negative coefficient in the table, it is not optimal. 2 5.2 Getting the simplex tableau: specialization to slack variablesConsider the following LP of standard form:Maximize Z = cT xsuchthat Ax≤b, x≥0.If the vector b ≥ 0, then we can add slack variables, and the LP will turn into canonical formM a x i m i z e Z = [ c 0 ] T ∙ xs suchthat [A I] ∙ xs =b, x,s≥0.Now suppose xB (could contain slack variables) is basic variables in a tableau, a direct conse- quence of the general formula we have obtained in the preceding subsection yields the whole tableau as11Basic VariableRowZxsRHSZxB(0) .10cBT B−1A − cT B−1 AcBTB−1 B−1cBT B−1b B−1 bThe main observation is: The matrix B−1 is already present in the tableau. is very useful in sensitivity analysis.This observationExample: Let us revisit the following LP: MaximizesuchthatZ = −x1 + x22x1+x2 ≤ 4 x1+x2 ≤ 2x1,x2 ≥ 0. Suppose BV = (s1, x2). Then we have from before thatB=∙1 1 , B−1=∙1 −1 . 01 01Now perform the simplex algorithm, we haveBasic VariableZ s1 s2Basic VariableZ s1 x2Observe B−1 is exactly the matrix by the columns of slack variables.6 Proof of the dual theorem RowZx1 x2 s1 s2RHSRatios (0) (1) (2)1 0 01 -1 0 02110 4/1=41 1∗ 0 1 2/1=2←min0 4 2 RowZx1 x2 s1 s2RHS(0) (1) (2)1 0 02001 1 0 1 -1 11012 2 2RatiosProof: We will assume that the primal LP is in canonical formMaximize Z =cTx, such that Ax=b, x≥0.12Its dual isMinimize W = bT y, such that AT y ≥ c (no sign constraints on y).Step 1: Suppose xB is the basic variables in the optimal BFS (say x∗) for the primal LP. Itfollows from the above discussion that Row (0) of the optimal tableau will beBasic VariableRowZxRHSZ(0)1cBT B−1A − cTcBT B−1bIt follows that, if we letwe haveyà = °B−1¢T cB, yàTA−cT ≥0, or ATyà≥c.In other words, y∗ is dual feasible.Step 2: The dual objective function takes value bT yà at feasible solution yà. However, it is notdifficult to see thatTT °−1¢T¥T T−1T∗ byà=yàb=B cB b=cBBb=cx,which is the optimal value for the primal LP.Step 3: We have found a dual feasible solution yà and a primal feasible solution x∗, for whichbT yà = cT x∗. It follows that yà is optimal for the dual, andoptimal value for the dual = bT yà = cT x∗ = optimal value for the primal.We complete the proof. 2 Corollary: It follows from Step 1 in the proof that a BFS with basic variables xB is optimal ifand only if (B−1)T cB is dual feasible. And in this case, (B−1)T cB is indeed dual optimal. Some comment on the slack variables: Consider the following LP of standard form:Maximize Z =cTx, such that Ax≤b, x≥0.If the vector b ≥ 0, then we know Row (0) of the simplex tableau corresponding basic variablesxB is of formThis implies that the optimal value of the i-th dual variable is the coefficient of the slack variable si in Row (0) of the optimal tableau.Basic VariableRowZxsRHSZ(0)1cBT B−1A − cTcBTB−1cBTB−1b13Remark: The simplex algorithm tableau is not optimal if there are some negative coefficients in Row (0). This means that the corresponding (B−1)T cB is not dual feasible. Therefore the simplex algorithm can be regarded as keeping the primal feasibility while trying to reach dual feasibility.Example: Consider the LP problemMaximize such thatZ = 4x1 + x23x1 + 2x2 ≤ 6 6x1+3x2 ≤ 10x1,x2 ≥ 0.Suppose in solving this LP, Row (0) of the optimal tableau is found to beUse the dual theorem to prove that the computations must be incorrect. Solution: The dual LP isMinimize W = 6y1 + 10y2such that 3y1 + 6y2 ≥ 4 2y1+3y2 ≥ 1y1,y2 ≥ 0. Suppose that the computation is correct, we knowyà = ( 0 , 1 )is dual feasible and optimal. It is indeed feasible, and we expect W∗ =bTyà=6 0+10 1=10.Basic VariableRowZx1 x2 s1 s2RHSZ(0)1020120/3ButW∗ 6= Z∗ = 20 3 is in contradiction with the dual theorem. The computations must be wrong. 2147 Complete slackness theoremThe complete slackness theorem is a very important result that allows us to determine if a pair of vectors, respectively primal and dual feasible, are primal optimal and dual optimal. Rough speaking, the result says that ìIf a dual variable is non-zero, the corresponding primal constraint must be tight. If a primal variable is non-zero, the corresponding dual constraint must be tight.î The following theorem is stated for LP in standard form for the sake of simplicity, though the result is true for general LP.Complete slackness theorem: Consider a primal LP in standard form: Maximize Z=cTx suchthat Ax≤b, x≥0and its dualMinimize W =bTy suchthat ATy≥c, y≥0.Let xà be primal feasible and yà be dual feasible. Then xà is primal optimal and yà is dualoptimal if and only if Proof: Define(b−Axà)Tyà=0 and (ATyà−c)Txà=0. V =(b−Axà)Tyà+(ATyà−c)Txà.Sinceb−Axà≥0, yà≥0, ATyà−c≥0, xà≥0,itisclearthatV ≥),andV =0 ifandonlyif (b−Axà)Tyà=0 and (ATyà−c)Txà=0.Moreover, it is not difficult to compute thatV =bTyà−xàTATyà+yàTAxà−cTxà=bTyà−cTxà,V = b T yà − c T xà = 0 , thanks to the dual theorem. This implies that(b−Axà)Tyà=0 and (ATyà−c)Txà=0.ì⇐î: It follows that V = 0, which impliesb T yà − c T xà = 0 .This implies that xà is primal optimal, and yà is dual optimal. This completes the proof. 2TTTTTTsincexà A yà=(xà A yà) =yà Axà(itisarealnumber).ì⇒î: suppose xà is primal optimal and yà is dual optimal, we have158 Economic interpretation of the dual LPConsider a LP in standard formMaximize Z=cTx, suchthat Ax≤b, x≥0,and its dualMinimize W =bTy, suchthat ATy≥c, y≥0.We also assume vector b ≥ 0. Think of the primal LP as a production problem, xj being the output of the j-the item, cj being the profit from the sale of one unit of j-th item, bi being the available amount of i-th resource, and aij as the amount of i-th resource required for the production of one unit of j-th item. The primal LP is then just the problem of maximizing profit, subject to the total supply of the resources.The primal LP can be written in canonical from with slack variables. Suppose the optimal basic variables is xB, then the optimal tableau isBasic VariableRowZxsRHSZxB(0) .10cBT B−1A − cT B−1 AcBTB−1 B−1cBT B−1b B−1 band the optimal solution to the dual problem is y∗ = (cBT B−1)T = (B−1)T cB.Suppose now the total available amount of resource slightly increases from b to b + 4b, with4b being the small increment. The primal LP becomesMaximize Z=cTx, suchthat Ax≤b+4b, x≥0,and its dualIf we replace b in the above (previously) optimal tableau, we haveMinimize W =(b+4b)Ty, suchthat ATy≥c, y≥0.Basic VariableRowZxsRHSZxB(0) .10cBT B−1A − cT B−1 AcBTB−1 B−1cBT B−1(b + 4b) B−1(b + 4b)Note that the coefficients for the decision and slack variables in Row (0) remains unchanged ñ they are all non-negative. Therefore, the basic variables xB is still optimal for this new primal LP as long as B−1(b + 4b) ≥ 0 (i.e., the basic solution corresponding to the basic variables xB is still feasible in this new LP). One condition to guarantee this, for example, is that B−1b > 0 ( or16equivalently, the optimal BFS for the original primal LP is non-degenerate) and the increment 4b is sufficiently small. Suppose this is the case, then y∗ = (B−1)T cB is still optimal for the new dual LP, and the increment of maximal profit is4Z∗ = cBT B−14b = y∗4b,which is also the increment of the optimal value for the dual LP.For this reason, the dual variables y are often referred to as the shadow price (or marginalvalue) for the resources: if the supply of the i-th resource is increase by 4bi, the profit will increase by yi∗4bi.9 Farkas theorem: an application of dual theoryFarkas theorem is a remarkably simple characterization of those linear systems that have solutions. Via the duality theorem, the proof is trivial.Farkas theorem: The equation Ax = b, x ≥ 0 has a solution if and only if there is no vector y such that AT y ≥ 0 and bT y < 0.Proof: Consider LP in canonical formMaximize Z =0Tx such that Ax=b, x≥0,and its dualMinimize W = bTy such that ATy ≥ 0.ì⇒î: Suppose Ax = b, x ≥ 0 has a solution. Then the primal LP is feasible and the optimal value is Z∗ = 0. It follows from the dual theorem that the dual LP is feasible with the same optimal value 0. Now suppose there exists a y such that AT y ≥ 0 and bT y < 0. Then the optimal value of the dual is less than 0, a contradiction.ì⇐î: Since the dual problem clearly has a feasible solution Y = 0, the dual is either unbounded or has an optimal solution. However, by assumption, the optimal value for the dual LP is clearly bounded from below by 0. In other words, the dual LP has to have an optimal solution. Thanks to the dual theorem, so does the primal LP, which implies that Ax = b, x ≥ 0 has a solution.Remark: The Farkas theorem is equivalent to the dual theorem in the sense that we can prove the dual theorem from Farkas theorem. We have shown the reverse in the above proof.9.1 Application of Farkas theorem to the study of Markov chainsSuppose that a particle can be in any one of the states numbered 1, 2, , n. If the particle is in state i, let pij denote the probability of a transition (a jump) to state j. We require pij ≥ 0 andpi1 + pi2 + + pin = 1.At a certain instant, let xi equal the probability that the particle is in state i. Thenx1+ +xn=1, xi≥0,∀i. 17After a transition, the particle will be in state j with probability y = pPx + p x + + p x .j 1j 1 2j 2 nj n Evidently, all yj are non-negative and yj = 1 (why?).If we write y = (y1, ,yn)T and x = (x1, ,xn)T, we have p 1 1 p 1 2 p 1 n y=PTx, withP=p21 p22 p2n.bT y = −λ < 0.Xn j=1Let zm = maxzi. We haveXnHowever, this implies thatHowever, the left hand side isA contradiction.Xn j=1pmjzj −zm ≤zm 18Xn j=1pmj −zm ≤0.uTb = (0,0, ,0,1)T.AT y ≥ 0, bT y < 0. Write y = (y1, ,yn,−λ)T = (zT,−λ). Then we haveATy=£P−I u§ ∙ z =(P−I)z−λu≥0, −λpijzj −zi ≥λ>0,forall i. . . ... .  pn1 pn2 pnnThe matrix P is called the Markov matrix.A steady state is a state vector x that goes to itself:x=PTx, x≥0, Xxi =1. We should use Farkas theorem to prove the following result.Theorem: Every Markov matrix P has a steady state. Proof: The Markov matrix P has a steady state if and only ifwithandIf the Markov matrix P has no steady state, Farkas theorem implies that there exists a vector y such thatAx=b hasasolution x≥0, A=∙PT−I , withu=(1,1, ,1)n,pmjzj −zm ≥λ>0. j=12 
RR 3 Falmouth KY
RR 3 Falmouth KYFalmouth, KentuckyFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFalmouth, KentuckyCity Downtown FalmouthLocation of Falmouth in Pendleton County, Kentucky.Coordinates: 38°40′26″N 84°20′3″WCoordinates: 38°40′26″N 84°20′3″WCountryUnited StatesStateKentuckyCountyPendletonArea • Total1.3 sq mi (3.3 km2) • Land1.3 sq mi (3.3 km2) • Water0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)Elevation551 ft (168 m)Population (2010) • Total2,169 • Estimate (2016)[1]2,139 • Density1,598.9/sq mi (617.4/km2)Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5) • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)ZIP code41040Area code(s)859FIPS code21-26434GNIS feature ID0491967Websitecityoffalmouth.com Along U.S. Route 27 on Falmouth's edge.Falmouth is a home rule-class city[2] in, and the county seat of, Pendleton County, Kentucky,[3] in the United States. The population was 2,169 according to the 2010 census. It lies at the confluence of the South and Main forks of the Licking River and is home to Kincaid Regional Theatre. Contents  [hide] 1Geography2History3Arts and culture4Demographics5Notable people6Climate7References8External links Geography[edit]Falmouth is located at 38°40′26″N 84°20′3″W (38.673860, -84.334213).[4]According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2), all land.History[edit]Possibly settled as early as 1780, Falmouth was laid out by John Waller (1758–1823) and formally established by the state assembly in 1793. Waller named the new settlement after his native Falmouth, Virginia.[5] It was incorporated as a city in 1856.[6]The town is perhaps best remembered for natural disasters that have devastated the town over the last half of the 20th Century. In 1964, the Licking River reached 47 feet (19 feet above flood stage) and left much of the town under water. On April 23, 1968 a tornado leveled many homes in the town. On March 2, 1997, a major flood on the Licking River again left the town crippled. The river reached 52 feet (24 feet above flood stage) and left 80% of the town under several feet of water. Many homes and business were damaged and five residents were killed.Elzey Hughes House is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.Arts and culture[edit]Kincaid Regional Theatre, also referred to as KRT, has called Falmouth home since 1983. Since the theatre's founding, KRT has achieved musical theatre excellence by employing local actors from the Cincinnati metropolitan area and beyond. With the help of many supporters, KRT continues to enhance the arts in the community with a summer children's theatre workshop and through involvement with local schools. Summer and Christmas musicals are staged in an indoor, air-conditioned auditorium at the Falmouth School Center, previously known as the Pendleton County Middle School and Falmouth High School. Some of the most recent productions put on by KRT have been: Beauty and the Beast Jr., Footloose, All Shook Up, Joseph and the Technicolor Dreamcoat, and Fiddler on the Roof.Falmouth also hosts one of Kentucky's largest fall events, the Kentucky Wool Festival. The Wool Festival is an annual event that takes place just outside Kincaid Lake State Park during the first full weekend of October. The festival promotes sheep, wool products, and the local community, providing activities and entertainment for all age groups. Heritage demonstrations also highlight Pendleton County and Kentucky history.Demographics[edit]Historical populationCensusPop.%±180040—1810121202.5%1830207—1860315—187061494.9%188096757.5%18901,14618.5%19001,134−1.0%19101,1804.1%19201,33012.7%19301,87641.1%19402,09911.9%19502,1864.1%19602,56817.5%19702,5931.0%19802,482−4.3%19902,378−4.2%20002,058−13.5%20102,1695.4%Est. 20162,139[1]−1.4%U.S. Decennial Census[7] Buildings in Downtown FalmouthAs of the census[8] of 2000, there were 2,058 people, 849 households, and 521 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,598.9 people per square mile (616.0/km²). There were 988 housing units at an average density of 767.6 per square mile (295.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.21% White, 1.90% African American, 0.63% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.63% from other races, and 0.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.36% of the population.There were 849 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.6% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 3.03.In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.4 males.The median income for a household in the city was $25,114, and the median income for a family was $36,250. Males had a median income of $31,012 versus $20,781 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,634. About 16.5% of families and 19.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 16.3% of those age 65 or over.Notable people[edit]Dr. Phillip Allen Sharp, who earned the Nobel Prize for work that fundamentally changed scientists' understanding of the structure of genes, is a native of Falmouth.Rev. Father J. M. Lelen, PhD was pastor of St. Francis Xavier Roman Catholic Church in Falmouth for many years in the first half of the 20th century.Beth Broderick, actress on Sabrina, the Teenage WitchClimate[edit]The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Falmouth has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.[9]References[edit]^ Jump up to: a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.Jump up ^ "Summary and Reference Guide to House Bill 331 City Classification Reform" (PDF). Kentucky League of Cities. Retrieved December 30, 2014.Jump up ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.Jump up ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.Jump up ^ Rennick, Robert M. (1987). Kentucky Place Names. University Press of Kentucky. p. 98. Retrieved 2013-04-28.Jump up ^ Commonwealth of Kentucky. Office of the Secretary of State. Land Office. "Falmouth, Kentucky". Accessed 26 July 2013.Jump up ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.Jump up ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.Jump up ^ Climate Summary for Falmouth, KentuckyExternal links[edit]Official websitePendleton County Views – Falmouth historical images and documents, from Northern Kentucky ViewsFlood of '97 – special coverage from the Cincinnati Enquirer
Oregon
OregonOregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary along Washington state, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary along Idaho. The parallel 42° north delineates the southern boundary with California and Nevada. Oregon is one of only three states of the contiguous United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean.
Eldorado
EldoradoEl DoradoFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the mythical city of gold. For other uses, see El Dorado (disambiguation). The zipa used to cover his body in gold dust and, from his raft, he offered treasures to the Guatavita goddess in the middle of the sacred lake. This old Muisca tradition became the origin of the El Dorado legend.This Muisca raft figure is on display in the Gold Museum, Bogotá, ColombiaEl Dorado (pronounced [el doˈɾaðo], English: /ˌɛl dəˈrɑːdoʊ/; Spanish for "the golden one"), originally El Hombre Dorado (the golden man), or El Rey Dorado (the golden king), was the term used by the Spanish Empire to describe a mythical tribal chief (zipa) of the Muisca native people of Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita. The legends surrounding El Dorado changed over time, as it went from being a man, to a city, to a kingdom, and then finally an empire.A second location for El Dorado was inferred from rumors, which inspired several unsuccessful expeditions in the late 1500s in search of a city called Manõa on the shores of Lake Parime. Two of the most famous of these expeditions were led by Sir Walter Raleigh. In pursuit of the legend, Spanish conquistadors and numerous others searched Colombia, Venezuela, and parts of Guyana and northern Brazil for the city and its fabulous king. In the course of these explorations, much of northern South America, including the Amazon River, was mapped. By the beginning of the 19th century most people dismissed the existence of the city as a myth.[1] Contents  [hide] 1Muisca1.1The tribal ceremony2From ritual to myth and metaphor3Gold and greed4The search for El Dorado4.1Quesada brothers' expeditions4.2Pizarro and Orellana's discovery of the Amazon4.3Expeditions of Pedro de Ursúa and Lope de Aguirre4.4Lake Guatavita gold4.5Antonio de Berrio's expeditions4.6Walter Raleigh4.7Post-Elizabethan expeditions5Gold strikes and the extractive wealth of the rainforest6Recent research6.1Evidence for the existence of Lake Parime7El Dorado in popular culture7.1Music7.2Concert Tours7.3Games7.3.1Pinball7.3.2Video games7.3.3Mobile games7.4Movies7.5Television7.6Comics7.7Poems7.8Literature8See also9Notes10References10.1Bibliography11Further reading12External links Muisca[edit]Main articles: Muisca people and Muisca mythologyThe Muisca occupied the highlands of Cundinamarca and Boyacá departments of Colombia in two migrations from outlying lowland areas, one starting c. 1270 BCE, and a second between 800 BCE and 500 BCE. At those times, other more ancient civilizations also flourished in the highlands. The Muisca Confederation was as advanced as the Aztec, Maya and Inca civilizations.[2]In the mythology of the Muisca, Mnya the Gold or golden color, represents the energy contained in the trinity of Chiminigagua, which constitutes the creative power of everything that exists.[3] Chiminigagua is related to Bachué, Cuza, Chibchacum, Bochica, and Nencatacoa.The tribal ceremony[edit]The original narrative can be found in the rambling chronicle El Carnero of Juan Rodriguez Freyle. According to Freyle, zipa of the Muisca, in a ritual at Lake Guatavita near present-day Bogotá, was said to be covered with gold dust, which he then washed off in the lake while his attendants threw trinkets made of gold, emeralds, and precious stones into the lake.In 1638, Freyle wrote this account of the ceremony, addressed to the cacique or governor of Guatavita:[Note 1][4]The ceremony took place on the appointment of a new ruler. Before taking office, he spent some time secluded in a cave, without women, forbidden to eat salt, or to go out during daylight. The first journey he had to make was to go to the great lagoon of Guatavita, to make offerings and sacrifices to the demon which they worshipped as their god and lord. During the ceremony which took place at the lagoon, they made a raft of rushes, embellishing and decorating it with the most attractive things they had. They put on it four lighted braziers in which they burned much moque, which is the incense of these natives, and also resin and many other perfumes. The lagoon was large and deep, so that a ship with high sides could sail on it, all loaded with an infinity of men and women dressed in fine plumes, golden plaques and crowns. ... As soon as those on the raft began to burn incense, they also lit braziers on the shore, so that the smoke hid the light of day.At this time, they stripped the heir to his skin, and anointed him with a sticky earth on which they placed gold dust so that he was completely covered with this metal. They placed him on the raft ... and at his feet they placed a great heap of gold and emeralds for him to offer to his god. In the raft with him went four principal subject chiefs, decked in plumes, crowns, bracelets, pendants and ear rings all of gold. They, too, were naked, and each one carried his offering ... when the raft reached the centre of the lagoon, they raised a banner as a signal for silence.The gilded Indian then ... [threw] out all the pile of gold into the middle of the lake, and the chiefs who had accompanied him did the same on their own accounts. ... After this they lowered the flag, which had remained up during the whole time of offering, and, as the raft moved towards the shore, the shouting began again, with pipes, flutes and large teams of singers and dancers. With this ceremony the new ruler was received, and was recognised as lord and king.This is the ceremony that became the famous El Dorado, which has taken so many lives and fortunes.There is also an account, titled The Quest of El Dorado, by poet-priest and historian of the Conquest Juan de Castellanos, who had served under Jiménez de Quesada in his campaign against the Muisca, written in the mid-16th century but not published until 1850:[5]An alien Indian, hailing from afar,Who in the town of Quito did abide.And neighbor claimed to be of Bogata,There having come, I know not by what way,Did with him speak and solemnly announceA country rich in emeralds and gold.Also, among the things which them engaged,A certain king he told of who, disrobed,Upon a lake was wont, aboard a raft,To make oblations, as himself had seen,His regal form overspread with fragrant oilOn which was laid a coat of powdered goldFrom sole of foot unto his highest brow,Resplendent as the beaming of the sun.Arrivals without end, he further said,Were there to make rich votive offeringsOf golden trinkets and of emeralds rareAnd divers other of their ornaments;And worthy credence these things he affirmed;The soldiers, light of heart and well content,Then dubbed him El Dorado, and the nameBy countless ways was spread throughout the world.According to Spanish historian Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo (1478–1557):He went about all covered with powdered gold, as casually as if it were powdered salt. For it seemed to him that to wear any other finery was less beautiful, and that to put on ornaments or arms made of gold worked by hammering, stamping, or by other means, was a vulgar and common thing.In the Muisca territories, there were a number of natural locations considered sacred, including lakes, rivers, forests and large rocks. People gathered here to perform rituals and sacrifices mostly with gold and emeralds. Important lakes were Lake Guatavita, Lake Iguaque, Lake Fúquene, Lake Tota, the Siecha Lakes, Lake Teusacá and Lake Ubaque.[2]From ritual to myth and metaphor[edit]El Dorado is applied to a legendary story in which precious stones were found in fabulous abundance along with gold coins. The concept of El Dorado underwent several transformations, and eventually accounts of the previous myth were also combined with those of a legendary lost city. The resulting El Dorado myth enticed European explorers for two centuries. Among the earliest stories was the one told on his deathbed by Juan Martinez, a captain of munitions for Spanish adventurer Diego de Ordaz, who claimed to have visited the city of Manoa. Martinez had allowed a store of gunpowder to catch fire and was condemned to death, however his friends let him escape downriver in a canoe. Martinez then met with some local people who took him to the city:The canoa was carried down the stream, and certain of the Guianians met it the same evening; and, having not at any time seen any Christian nor any man of that colour, they carried Martinez into the land to be wondered at, and so from town to town, until he came to the great city of Manoa, the seat and residence of Inga the emperor. The emperor, after he had beheld him, knew him to be a Christian, and caused him to be lodged in his palace, and well entertained. He was brought thither all the way blindfold, led by the Indians, until he came to the entrance of Manoa itself, and was fourteen or fifteen days in the passage. He avowed at his death that he entered the city at noon, and then they uncovered his face; and that he traveled all that day till night through the city, and the next day from sun rising to sun setting, ere he came to the palace of Inga. After that Martinez had lived seven months in Manoa, and began to understand the language of the country, Inga asked him whether he desired to return into his own country, or would willingly abide with him. But Martinez, not desirous to stay, obtained the favour of Inga to depart.[6]The fable of Juan Martinez was founded on the adventures of Juan Martin de Albujar, well known to the Spanish historians of the Conquest; and who, in the expedition of Pedro de Silva (1570), fell into the hands of the Caribs of the Lower Orinoco.[1]During the 16th and 17th centuries, Europeans, still fascinated by the New World, believed that a hidden city of immense wealth existed. Numerous expeditions were mounted to search for this treasure, all of which ended in failure. The illustration of El Dorado's location on maps only made matters worse, as it made some people think that the city of El Dorado's existence had been confirmed. The mythical city of El Dorado on Lake Parime was marked on numerous maps until its existence was disproved by Alexander von Humboldt during his Latin America expedition (1799–1804).Meanwhile, the name of El Dorado came to be used metaphorically of any place where wealth could be rapidly acquired. It was given to El Dorado County, California, and to towns and cities in various states. It has also been anglicized to the single word Eldorado, and is sometimes used in product titles to suggest great wealth and fortune, such as the Cadillac Eldorado line of luxury automobiles. Nieuwe caerte van het Wonderbaer ende Goudrjcke Landt Guiana by Jodocus Hondius (1598) shows the city of Manoa on the northeastern shore of Lake ParimeEl Dorado is also sometimes used as a metaphor to represent an ultimate prize or "Holy Grail" that one might spend one's life seeking. It could represent true love, heaven, happiness, or success. It is used sometimes as a figure of speech to represent something much sought after that may not even exist, or, at least, may not ever be found. Such use is evident in Edgar Alan Poe's poem "El Dorado". In this context, El Dorado bears similarity to other myths such as the Fountain of Youth and Shangri-la. The other side of the ideal quest metaphor may be represented by Helldorado, a satirical nickname given to Tombstone, Arizona (United States) in the 1880s by a disgruntled miner who complained that many of his profession had traveled far to find El Dorado, only to wind up washing dishes in restaurants.[citation needed] The South African city Johannesburg is commonly interpreted as a modern-day El Dorado, due to the extremely large gold deposit found along the Witwatersrand on which it is situated.Gold and greed[edit]Spanish conquistadores had noticed the native people's fine artifacts of gold and silver long before any legend of "golden men" or "lost cities" had appeared. The prevalence of such valuable artifacts, and the natives' apparent ignorance of their value, inspired speculation as to a plentiful source for them.Prior to the time of Spanish conquest of the Muisca and discovery of Lake Guatavita, a handful of expeditions had set out to explore the lowlands to the east of the Andes in search of gold, cinnamon, precious stones, and anything else of value. During the Klein-Venedig period in Venezuela (1528–1546), agents of the German Welser banking family (which had received a concession from Charles I of Spain) launched repeated expeditions into the interior of the country in search of gold, starting with Ambrosius Ehinger's first expedition in July of 1529.[citation needed]Spanish explorer Diego de Ordaz, then governor of the eastern part of Venezuela known as Paria (named after Paria Peninsula), was the first European to explore the Orinoco river in 1531–32 in search of gold. A veteran of Hernán Cortés's campaign in Mexico, Ordaz followed the Orinoco beyond the mouth of the Meta River but was blocked by the rapids at Atures. After his return he died, possibly poisoned, on a voyage back to Spain.[7] After the death of Ordaz while returning from his expedition, the Crown appointed a new Governor of Paria, Jerónimo de Ortal, who diligently explored the interior along the Meta River between 1532 and 1537. In 1535, he ordered captain Alonso de Herrera to move inland by the waters of the Uyapari River (today the town of Barrancas del Orinoco). Herrera, who had accompanied Ordaz three years before, explored the Meta River but was killed by the indigenous Achagua near its banks, while waiting out the winter rains in Casanare.The search for El Dorado[edit]The earliest reference to the name El Dorado was in 1535 or 1536, before Spanish contact with the Muisca people. Inspection of the Welser army by Georg von Speyer (right) and Philipp von Hutten (center) at Sanlúcar de Barrameda.Between 1531 and 1538, the German conquistadors Nikolaus Federmann and Georg von Speyer searched the Venezuelan lowlands, Colombian plateaus, Orinoco Basin and Llanos Orientales for El Dorado.[8] Subsequently Philipp von Hutten accompanied Von Speyer on a journey (1536–38) in which they reached the headwaters of the Rio Japura, near the equator. In 1541 Hutten led an exploring party of about 150 men, mostly horsemen, from Coro on the coast of Venezuela in search of the Golden City. After several years of wandering, harassed by the natives and weakened by hunger and fever, he crossed the Rio Bermejo, and went on with a small group of around 40 men on horseback into Los Llanos, where they engaged in battle with a large number of Omaguas and Hutten was severely wounded. He led those of his followers who survived back to Coro in 1546.[9] On Hutten's return, he and a traveling companion, Bartholomeus VI. Welser, were executed in El Tocuyo by the Spanish authorities.In 1535, Captains Anasco and Ampudia were dispatched by Spanish conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar, one of Francisco Pizarro's chief lieutenants, to discover the valley of Dorado in pursuit of the splendid riches of the Zaque, or chieftain of Cundinamarca, described by a wandering Indian of Tacumga.In 1536 Gonzalo Díaz de Pineda had led an expedition to the lowlands to the east of Quito and had found cinnamon trees but no rich empire.Quesada brothers' expeditions[edit]Main article: Spanish conquest of the MuiscaIn 1536, stories of El Dorado drew the Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada and his army of 800 men away from their mission to find an overland route to Peru and up into the Andean homeland of the Muisca for the first time. The southern Muisca settlements and their treasures quickly fell to the conquistadors in 1537 and 1538. On the Bogotá savanna, the Spanish received reports about El Dorado from captured natives, and of the initiation rite of the new zipa, which used to take place in Lake Guatavita.[specify] The Spanish captured large amounts of gold from the Muisca, which led them to spread the word that El Dorado was near.After his brother Gonzalo had left for Spain in May 1539, Spanish conquistador Hernán Pérez de Quesada set out a new expedition in September of 1540, leaving with 270 Spanish soldiers and countless indigenous porters to explore the Llanos Orientales. One of his main captains on this journey was Baltasar Maldonado. Their expedition was unsuccessful and after reaching Quito, the troops returned to Santafe de Bogotá.[7]Pizarro and Orellana's discovery of the Amazon[edit]See also: Amazon River § HistoryIn 1540, Gonzalo Pizarro, the younger half-brother of Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish conquistador who toppled the Incan Empire in Peru, was made the governor of the province of Quito in northern Ecuador. Shortly after taking lead in Quito, Gonzalo learned from many of the natives of a valley far to the east rich in both cinnamon and gold. He banded together 340 soldiers and about 4000 natives in 1541 and led them eastward down the Rio Coca and Rio Napo. Francisco de Orellana accompanied Pizarro on the expedition as his lieutenant. Gonzalo quit after many of the soldiers and natives had died from hunger, disease, and periodic attacks by hostile natives. He ordered Orellana to continue downstream, where he eventually made it to the Atlantic Ocean. The expedition found neither cinnamon nor gold, but Orellana is credited with discovering the Amazon River (so named because of a tribe of female warriors that attacked Orellana's men while on their voyage).Expeditions of Pedro de Ursúa and Lope de Aguirre[edit]In 1560, Basque conquistadors Pedro de Ursúa and Lope de Aguirre journeyed down the Marañón and Amazon Rivers, in search of El Dorado, with 300 Spaniards and hundreds of natives;[10] the actual goal of Ursúa was to send idle veterans from the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire away, to keep them from trouble-making, using the El Dorado myth as a lure. A year later, Aguirre participated in the overthrow and killing of Ursúa and his successor, Fernando de Guzmán, whom he ultimately succeeded.[11][12] He and his men reached the Atlantic (probably by the Orinoco River), destroying native villages on the way.[13]Lake Guatavita gold[edit]While the existence of a sacred lake in the Eastern Ranges of the Andes, associated with Indian rituals involving gold, was known to the Spaniards possibly as early as 1531, its location was only discovered in 1537 by conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada while on an expedition to the highlands of the Eastern Ranges of the Andes in search of gold.[14]Conquistadores Lázaro Fonte and Hernán Perez de Quesada attempted (unsuccessfully) to drain the lake in 1545 using a "bucket chain" of labourers. After 3 months, the water level had been reduced by 3 metres, and only a small amount of gold was recovered, with a value of 3000–4000 pesos (approx. US$100,000 today; a peso or piece of eight of the 15th century weighs 0.88 oz of 93% pure silver).[citation needed]A later more industrious attempt was made in 1580, by Bogotá business entrepreneur Antonio de Sepúlveda. A notch was cut deep into the rim of the lake, which managed to reduce the water level by 20 metres, before collapsing and killing many of the labourers. A share of the findings—consisting of various golden ornaments, jewellery and armour—was sent to King Philip II of Spain. Sepúlveda's discovery came to approximately 12,000 pesos. He died a poor man, and is buried at the church in the small town of Guatavita.In 1801, Alexander von Humboldt made a visit to Guatavita, and on his return to Paris, calculated from the findings of Sepúlveda's efforts that Guatavita could offer up as much as $300 million worth of gold.[1]In 1898, the Company for the Exploitation of the Lagoon of Guatavita was formed and taken over by Contractors Ltd. of London, in a deal brokered by British expatriate Hartley Knowles. The lake was drained by a tunnel that emerged in the centre of the lake. The water was drained to a depth of about 4 feet of mud and slime.[citation needed] This made it impossible to explore, and when the mud had dried in the sun, it had set like concrete. Artifacts worth only about £500 were found, and auctioned at Sotheby's of London. Some of these were donated to the British Museum.[15] The company filed for bankruptcy and ceased activities in 1929.In 1965, the Colombian government designated the lake as a protected area. Private salvage operations, including attempts to drain the lake, are now illegal.[citation needed]Antonio de Berrio's expeditions[edit]The Spanish Governor of Trinidad, Antonio de Berrio (nephew of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada), made three failed expeditions to look for El Dorado. Between 1583 and 1589 he carried out his first two expeditions, going through the wild regions of the Colombian plains and the Upper Orinoco. In 1590 he began his third expedition, ascending the Orinoco to reach the Caroní River with his own expeditionaries and another 470 men under command of Domingo de Vera.[16] In March of 1591, while he was waiting for supplies on Margarita Island, his entire force was taken captive by Walter Raleigh, who proceeded up the Orinoco in search of El Dorado, with Berrio as a guide. Berrio took them to the territories he had previously explored by himself years before. After several months Raleigh's expedition returned to Trinidad, and he released Berrio at the end of June 1595 on the coast of Cumaná in exchange for some English prisoners.[17] His son Fernando de Berrío y Ourña (1577–1622) also made numerous expeditions in search of El Dorado. Trinidad and Tobago stamp featuring the ‘Discovery of Lake Asphalt by Raleigh, 1595’Walter Raleigh[edit] Lake Parime (Parime Lacus) on a map by Hessel Gerritsz (1625). Situated at the west coast of the lake, the city of Manõa or El Dorado.Further information: Raleigh's El Dorado ExpeditionWalter Raleigh's 1595 journey with Antonio de Berrio had aimed to reach Lake Parime in the highlands of Guyana (the supposed location of El Dorado at the time). He was encouraged by the account of Juan Martinez, believed to be Juan Martin de Albujar, who had taken part in Pedro de Silva's expedition of the area in 1570, only to fall into the hands of the Caribs of the Lower Orinoco. Martinez claimed that he was taken to the golden city in blindfold, was entertained by the natives, and then left the city and couldn't remember how to return.[18] Raleigh had set many goals for his expedition, and believed he had a genuine chance at finding the so-called city of gold. First, he wanted to find the mythical city of El Dorado, which he suspected to be an actual Indian city named Manõa. Second, he hoped to establish an English presence in the Southern Hemisphere that could compete with that of the Spanish. His third goal was to create an English settlement in the land called Guyana, and to try to reduce commerce between the natives and Spaniards.In 1596 Raleigh sent his lieutenant, Lawrence Kemys, back to Guyana in the area of the Orinoco River, to gather more information about the lake and the golden city.[19] During his exploration of the coast between the Amazon and the Orinoco, Kemys mapped the location of Amerindian tribes and prepared geographical, geological and botanical reports of the country. Kemys described the coast of Guiana in detail in his Relation of the Second Voyage to Guiana (1596)[20] and wrote that indigenous people of Guiana traveled inland by canoe and land passages towards a large body of water on the shores of which he supposed was located Manoa, Golden City of El Dorado.Though Raleigh never found El Dorado, he was convinced that there was some fantastic city whose riches could be discovered. Finding gold on the riverbanks and in villages only strengthened his resolve.[21] In 1617, he returned to the New World on a second expedition, this time with Kemys and his son, Watt Raleigh, to continue his quest for El Dorado. However, Raleigh, by now an old man, stayed behind in a camp on the island of Trinidad. Watt Raleigh was killed in a battle with Spaniards and Kemys subsequently committed suicide.[20] Upon Raleigh's return to England, King James ordered him to be beheaded for disobeying orders to avoid conflict with the Spanish.[22] He was executed in 1618.Post-Elizabethan expeditions[edit]In early 1611 Sir Thomas Roe, on a mission to the West Indies for Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, sailed his 200-ton ship, the Lion's Claw, some 320 kilometres (200 mi) up the Amazon,[23] then took a party of canoes up the Waipoco (probably the Oyapock River) in search of Lake Parime, negotiating thirty-two rapids and traveling about one hundred miles before they ran out of food and had to turn back.[24][25][26][27]In 1637-38, two monks, Acana and Fritz, undertook several journeys to the lands of the Manoas, indigenous peoples living in western Guyana and what is now Roraima in northeastern Brazil. Although they found no evidence of El Dorado, their published accounts were intended to inspire further exploration.[28]In November 1739, Nicholas Horstman, a German surgeon commissioned by the Dutch Governor of Guiana, traveled up the Essequibo River accompanied by two Dutch soldiers and four Indian guides. In April 1741 one of the Indian guides returned reporting that in 1740 Horstman had crossed over to the Rio Branco and descended it to its confluence with the Rio Negro. Horstman discovered Lake Amucu on the North Rupununi but found neither gold nor any evidence of a city.[29]In 1740, Don Manuel Centurion, Governor of Santo Tomé de Guayana de Angostura del Orinoco in Venezuela, hearing a report from an Indian about Lake Parima, embarked on a journey up the Caura River and the Paragua River, causing the deaths of several hundred persons. His survey of the local geography, however, provided the basis for other expeditions starting in 1775.[1]From 1775 to 1780, Nicholas Rodriguez and Antonio Santos, two entrepreneurs employed by the Spanish Governors, set out on foot and Santos, proceeding by the Caroní River, the Paragua River, and the Pacaraima Mountains, reached the Uraricoera River and Rio Branco, but found nothing.[30]Between 1799 and 1804, Alexander von Humboldt conducted an extensive and scientific survey of the Guyana river basins and lakes, concluding that a seasonally-flooded confluence of rivers may be what inspired the notion of a mythical Lake Parime, and of the supposed golden city on the shore, nothing was found.[1] Further exploration by Charles Waterton (1812)[31] and Robert Schomburgk (1840)[32] confirmed Humboldt's findings.Gold strikes and the extractive wealth of the rainforest[edit]By the mid-1570s, the Spanish silver strike at Potosí in Upper Peru (modern Bolivia) was producing unprecedented real wealth.In 1603, Queen Elizabeth I of England died, bringing to an end the era of Elizabethan adventurism. A bit later, in 1618, Sir Walter Raleigh, the great inspirer, was beheaded for insubordination and treason.In 1695, bandeirantes in the south struck gold along a tributary of the São Francisco River in the highlands of State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prospect of real gold overshadowed the illusory promise of "gold men" and "lost cities" in the vast interior of the north.It appears today that the Muisca obtained their gold in trade, and while they possessed large quantities of it over time, no great store of the metal was ever accumulated.[citation needed]Recent research[edit]See also: List of Muisca research institutesIn 1987–1988, an expedition led by John Hemming of the Royal Geographical Society of London failed to uncover any evidence of the ancient city of Manoa on the island of Maracá in north-central Roraima. Members of the expedition were accused of looting historic artifacts[33] but an official report of the expedition described it as "an ecological survey."[34]Evidence for the existence of Lake Parime[edit]Main article: Lake ParimeAlthough it was dismissed in the 19th century as a myth, some evidence for the existence of a lake in northern Brazil has been uncovered. In 1977 Brazilian geologists Gert Woeltje and Frederico Guimarães Cruz along with Roland Stevenson,[35] found that on all the surrounding hillsides a horizontal line appears at a uniform level approximately 120 metres (390 ft) above sea level.[36] This line registers the water level of an extinct lake which existed until relatively recent times. Researchers who studied it found that the lake's previous diameter measured 400 kilometres (250 mi) and its area was about 80,000 square kilometres (31,000 sq mi). About 700 years ago this giant lake began to drain due to tectonic movement. In June 1690, a massive earthquake opened a bedrock fault, forming a rift or a graben that permitted the water to flow into the Rio Branco.[37] By the early 19th century it had dried up completely.[38]Roraima's well-known Pedra Pintada is the site of numerous pictographs dating to the pre-Columbian era. Designs on the sheer exterior face of the rock were most likely painted by people standing in canoes on the surface of the now-vanished lake.[39] Gold, which was reported to be washed up on the shores of the lake, was most likely carried by streams and rivers out of the mountains where it can be found today.[40]
Aunt Nannys Table
Aunt Nannys Table     96   Normal   0           false   false   false     EN-US   X-NONE   X-NONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times",serif;} The materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Hog Door
Hog DoorThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Virgil Mann's Mailbox
Virgil Mann's MailboxThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Barn Window
Barn WindowThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Black Boxes
Black BoxesThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Rosemond & Virgil Mann
Rosemond & Virgil MannThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
The Footprint
The FootprintThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Medicine Chest
Medicine ChestThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Franks Farm Machinery Book
Franks Farm Machinery BookThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Farm Machinery
Farm MachineryThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Frank Race's Lead Cube
Frank Race's Lead CubeThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Garage Window
Garage WindowThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
John W. Mann
John W. MannThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Mark's Symbol
Mark's SymbolThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Midnight Landscape
Midnight LandscapeThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Tobacco Patch
Tobacco PatchThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.Rural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Salt Box
Salt BoxThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.Rural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
Shed Door Mechanics
Shed Door MechanicsThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
The Church of Darkness & Light
The Church of Darkness & LightThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
The Dust Bowl
The Dust BowlThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
The Falmouth Flood Disaster
The Falmouth Flood DisasterThe materials used in this exhibition were taken from a barn on Gumlick Road in Roanoke, Kentucky.  The barn was built over one hundred years ago by the artist’s Great Great Great Grandfather, William Joseph Abner. The farm was eventually split between William’s five children, and the plot that the barn stands on was given to William’s granddaughter Nanny Abner and her husband Frank Race. Aunt Nanny (as she was known) and Frank had a hammer-mill in the barn that was used to crack corn. They also used the barn to house and care for the farm’s workhorses. The farm and barn were later sold to Aunt Nanny’s niece, Rosamond, and her husband Virgil Mann (the artist’s grandparents) who continued to use the barn until the late 90’s when they moved to Dry Ridge, Kentucky. In June of 2004 Virgil C. Mann passed away, leaving the farm to be divided among his five children. A small part of the farm, including the barn, was recently sold at auction. V. Mann purchased the three-acre lot where the barn, a corn shed, and a garage are located in April of this year. The artifacts within these buildings have provided much inspiration for the artist; the work you are witnessing is the continuation of six generations and over one hundred years of family legacy.  As you view these pieces, keep in mind where they came from and how they have changed over time, much like the family that built them. History cannot be created…This house stands on the opposite side of Gumlick Road, it is the result of over two hundred years of renovations beginning with a log cabin built by William Joseph Abner’s grandfather. The walls of that cabin still stand inside the house behind years of paint and plaster. The last renovations were made by Virgil and Rosamond Mann, during the artist’s childhood this was the there home.Roanoke Christian Church has stood on this spot, less than one mile from the barn, part of the Mann farm for the past one hundred and fifty years. Till this day members of the family reside as deacons and members of the congregation. The artist would as a child attend Sunday service, revivals, and Sunday School with his grandparents Virgil C. (deacon) and Rosamond (Sunday School teacher), who’s funeral services were also held at the church.This old house sets directly across Gumlick Road from the Roanoke Christian Church, it was one of the three original homes built by the family. The last inhabitant was Grover C. Mann, the artist’s great uncle (the house has been empty for forty years) it now sets beside a cemetery. Grover C. was one of Virgil C.’s five siblings.The Gumlick Cemetery was founded in 1882, by the congregation of the Gumlick Baptist Church, it is still in use today and almost every Sunday family can be seen placing flowers on the graves of loved ones. The artist on occasion, especially Easter, would accompany Rosamond to the cemetery to place lilies on the the family graves.Tobacco and cattle were the main source of revenue for the farming community of Roanoke, Kentucky past and present. All generations of the Mann family, including the artist, were tobacco farmers. Tobacco has been raised in this field, by the family, for well over one hundred years.The pieces in this exhibition were created over the summer consisting of several two to five day trips to the farm. The artist placed his easel on the ground his ancestors worked and cared for, overlooking the areas he remembered as a child. The creek that runs through the property was a popular place for camping, hunting, fishing, and blackberry picking.These pictures are of a shed located at the front left hand side of the barn. The shed was built by William Joseph Abner and later added onto by Frank Race, the family used the boards on either side of the door (midnight landscape) to carve their initials (window). The boards on the front of the shed were used to create the six black boxes in this exhibition.This box was found in the barn approximately one year after the artist had created 36 of the same size boxes for a previous exhibition. This box built by an ancestor for an unknown purpose was built in exactly the same way as the 36 boxes.This area of the barn was used to hold hogs and horses; the door in the front to the right of the manager was used to create Flood Disaster. The newspaper clippings used in this piece were saved by Rosamond Mann; in 1956 when the town of Falmouth, the county seat of Pendleton County, which contains the farm, was devastated by the Licking River.This wall contains a sliding door (top) and an opening door (bottom), these two pieces were used to create Hog Door and Dust Bowl. The top door (Hog Door) was used to slop the sows and piglets, the bottom door (Dust Bowl) was used to separate the piglets from the sow.This lead cube was used by Frank Race (an amateur inventor claiming to invent the first automatic tobacco stripping machine) to pound rivets.This book of farm machinery belonged to Frank Race and it was said that he would spend hours studying the diagrams so he might understand how build his own inventions. Pages from this book were used to create Retain Fate.Rosamond and Virgil C. Mann (artist’s grandparents)This piece of concrete was poured over 90 years ago by Frank Race with materials gathered from the creek, on the day it was poured Rosamond was visiting her Aunt Nanny and Uncle Frank she stepped in the concrete leaving her eight year old footprint for all time.These photos show the interior of the barn nearly; the interior is much as it was when Abner built it in the 1800’s.RR 3 FALMOUTH, KY.1. Aunt Nanny’s Table            $300.00           ns2. Virgil C. Mann’s Mailbox  $250.00           ns3. Aunt Nanny $100.00           ns4. Grover C. Mann & Horse   $100.00           ns5. Dust Bowl   $500.00           barn door, heating vent, & velvet can combine6. Chicken House        $400.00           chicken coop window collage7. Door Mechanism    $350.00           shed door mechanism & hinges8. Flood Disaster         $1500.00         manger door, sheet rock mud, & dirt collage9. Hog Door    $750.00           sliding slop door & sheet rock mud combine10. Boxes        $700.00           shed wall wood11. Tobacco Sticks      $50.00 ns12. Rosamond & Virgil C. Mann        $450.00   ns    barn wall & yoke combine13. Rosamond’s Footprint (age 8)      $1000.00         ns       14. Tobacco Fertilizer Jug       $100.00           ns15. Tobacco Patch (Spring)     $1000.00  barn wood & mud collage acrylic & oil16. Salt Lick    $300.00           ns        salt box from manger17. The Church           $650.00           barn wood collage & oil bars18. Frank Race’s Lead Cube   $300.00           ns19. Window    $500.00           ns        house window & barn wood combine20. Midnight Landscape          $1500.00  shed door & mud collage acrylic paint21. Farm Machinery    $800.00           mud and acrylic collage22. Frank Race’s Book           $75.00 ns23. Fishing Pole          $50.00 ns24. Medicine Box        $600.00           barn wall & sheet rock mud combine25. John W. Mann      $450.00           nsRural Route 3 Falmouth, Kentucky, to me is Grandma and Grandpa’s house, until they moved in 1998 this is where I would go to visit them. The barn, garage, and shed were where Grandpa worked and I helped. The place is like he left it and everywhere I look I see objects that remind me of my past, the work in this exhibition was created from these memories. I use collage to combine old newspapers (collected by Grandma and found in a box 1950-89), acrylic paint, gouache, oil bars, sheet rock mud, and dirt with wood (walls, doors, windows…) from the barn. The objects are familiar to me and have taken on the personalities of the people they belonged to. The work is very spontaneous I don’t plan out each move ahead of time; I try instead to work within the flow of the objects and environment. My goal is to suspend time, to create work that is a monument to my ancestors, and bring their spirits into the present day. As an object the barn will eventually deteriorate but as art it will continue on. I feel this is one of the basic reasons for art, why prehistoric man first drew on the cave walls.I was born in Kentucky and earned an associates degree in graphic design from ACA College of Design Cincinnati, Ohio. With only an understanding of the fundamentals of art and an international background in advertising and retail design, I see myself as something of an outsider artist. My style is a combination of several techniques including “cut-up” (Brion Gyson), the application of foreign materials such as snake skin, plaster, dirt, and plants; along with digital mediums.
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