This image is today's image of the Sun from the HMI instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Look at the full image, and zoom in on one of the sunspots. The dark part of a spot is the umbra, the less-dark area is called the penumbra. The umbra has the strongest and most homogeneous magnetic field; pretty much 3000G +/- 500, and pretty much going directly outward from the "solar surface". The penumbra, on the other hand, is made up of fine strands, some very inclined and lying close to the solar surface, some less inclined and heading up into the corona; some stronger and some weaker, but generally around 1000G. The structure in the penumbra has been likened to two combs (like for your hair) shoved together with some tines going horizontally, the others going vertically, in between each other.
18. Then the Lord God said, "It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper who is like him." 19. So the Lord God formed out of the ground each wild animal and each bird of the sky, and brought each to the man to see what he would call it. And whatever the man called a living creature, that was its name. 20. Man gave names to all the animals, to the birds of the sky, and to every wild creature; but for the man f no helper was found who was like him. 21. So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to come over the man, and he slept. God took one of his ribs and closed the flesh at that place. 22. Then the Lord God made the rib He had taken from the man into a woman and brought her to the man. 23. And the man said: "This one, at last, is bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh; this one will be called woman, for she was taken from man." 24. This is why a man leaves his father and mother and bonds with his wife, and they become one flesh. 25. Both the man and his wife were naked, yet felt no shame.
Butterfly, Horse, Lizard, Fish, Protozoa and Zoophyte, Crustacea, Turtle, Snake, Alligator, Frog, Sheep, Iguana, Praying Mantis, Calamary, Hammer-Head Shark, Tennessee Walker, Hermit Crab, Coral, Mammals, Rhinophryne, Porifera, Actinoida, Crab Spider
January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 349 days remaining until the end of the year (350 in leap years). This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Saturday, Monday, or Wednesday (58 in 400 years each) than on Thursday or Friday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Sunday or Tuesday (56).
- 27 BC – Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus is granted the title Augustus by the Roman Senate, marking the beginning of the Roman Empire.
- 378 – General Siyaj K'ak' conquers Tikal, enlarging the domain of King Spearthrower Owl of Teotihuacán.
- 550 – Gothic War: The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege, by bribing the Isaurian garrison.
- 929 – Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III established the Caliphate of Córdoba.
- 1120 – The Council of Nablus is held, establishing the earliest surviving written laws of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
- 1362 – A storm tide in the North Sea ravages the East coast of England and destroys the German city of Rungholt on the island of Strand.
- 1412 – The Medici family is appointed official banker of the Papacy.
- 1492 – The first grammar of the Spanish language (Gramática de la lengua castellana) is presented to Queen Isabella I.
- 1547 – Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia, replacing the 264-year-old Grand Duchy of Moscow with the Tsardom of Russia.
- 1556 – Philip II becomes King of Spain.
- 1572 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England.
- 1605 – The first edition of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha (Book One of Don Quixote) by Miguel de Cervantes is published in Madrid, Spain.
- 1707 – The Scottish Parliament ratifies the Act of Union, paving the way for the creation of Great Britain.
- 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Cape St. Vincent.
- 1786 – Virginia enacts the Statute for Religious Freedom authored by Thomas Jefferson.
- 1809 – Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of La Coruña.
- 1847 – John C. Frémont is appointed Governor of the new California Territory.
- 1862 – Hartley Colliery disaster: Two hundred and four men and boys killed in a mining disaster, prompted a change in UK law which henceforth required all collieries to have at least two independent means of escape.
- 1878 – Russo-Turkish War (1877–78): Battle of Philippopolis: Captain Aleksandr Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule.
- 1883 – The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing the United States Civil Service, is passed.
- 1900 – The United States Senate accepts the Anglo-German treaty of 1899 in which the United Kingdom renounces its claims to the Samoan islands.
- 1909 – Ernest Shackleton's expedition finds the magnetic South Pole.
- 1919 – Temperance movement: The United States ratifies the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, requiring Prohibition in the United States one year after ratification.
- 1920 – Zeta Phi Beta Sorority Incorporated was founded on the campus of Howard University.
- 1920 – The League of Nations holds its first council meeting in Paris, France.
- 1921 – The Marxist Left in Slovakia and the Transcarpathian Ukraine holds its founding congress in Ľubochňa.
- 1924 – Eleftherios Venizelos becomes Prime Minister of Greece for the fourth time.
- 1938 – Benny Goodman and his band performed in concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City
- 1942 – Crash of TWA Flight 3, killing all 22 aboard, including film star Carole Lombard.
- 1945 – Adolf Hitler moves into his underground bunker, the so-called Führerbunker.
- 1964 – Hello, Dolly! opened on Broadway, beginning a run of 2,844 performances.
- 1969 – Czech student Jan Palach commits suicide by self-immolation in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in protest against the Soviets' crushing of the Prague Spring the year before.
- 1969 – Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 perform the first-ever docking of manned spacecraft in orbit, the first-ever transfer of crew from one space vehicle to another, and the only time such a transfer was accomplished with a space walk.
- 1970 – Buckminster Fuller receives the Gold Medal award from the American Institute of Architects.
- 1979 – The last Iranian Shah flees Iran with his family for good and relocates to Egypt.
- 1991 – Coalition Forces go to war with Iraq, beginning the Gulf War.
- 1992 – El Salvador officials and rebel leaders sign the Chapultepec Peace Accords in Mexico City, Mexico ending the 12-year Salvadoran Civil War that claimed at least 75,000 lives.
- 2001 – Congolese President Laurent-Désiré Kabila is assassinated by one of his own bodyguards.
- 2001 – US President Bill Clinton awards former President Theodore Roosevelt a posthumous Medal of Honor for his service in the Spanish–American War.
- 2002 – The UN Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and the freezing of assets of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda, and the remaining members of the Taliban.
- 2003 – The Space Shuttle Columbia takes off for mission STS-107 which would be its final one. Columbia disintegrated 16 days later on re-entry.
- 2006 – Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is sworn in as Liberia's new president. She becomes Africa's first female elected head of state.